SC CHEM 102 - Chapter 11 and 12 CHEM 102 (8 pages)

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Chapter 11 and 12 CHEM 102



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CHEM 102 Ch 11 12 Lecture 19 Outline of Last Lecture I Chemical and Physical Properties of Monosaccharides II Disaccharides a Glycosidic Bond b Important Disaccharides III Reducing Sugars Polysaccharides Outline of Current Lecture I Classify Lipids II Fatty Acid Structure III Triacylglycerols and reactions of them IV Hydrolyzable and Nonhydrolyzable Lipids V Steroids Eicosanoids and Vitamins VI Protein Functions VII Amino Acids VIII Zwitterions and Peptides IX Acid sequence and constitutional isomers X Types of proteins and their functions XI Effect of temperature on proteins These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute XII Hydrolysis of proteins Current Lecture Classification of Lipids Lipids nonpolar compounds or compounds of low polarity Most lipids are Amphipathic part hydrophobic afraid of water part hydrophilic water loving Lipids are either Hydrolyzable or Nonhydrolyzable Hydrolyzable Lipids include Triacylglycerols waxes Glycerophospholipids Sphingolipids NonHydrolyzable Lipids include Steroids Eicosanoids Fat Soluble Vitamins Lipid Functions Cell membrane Structure Creates a barrier for the cell Controls the flow of materials Energy Storage Fats stored in adipose tissue Hormones and Vitamins Hormones help with communication between cells Vitamins assist in the regulation of bodily functions Fatty Acids Fatty Acids carboxylic acids with ling hydrogen chains all lipids contain at least one fatty acid Fatty acids can be Saturated all carbon carbon single bonds Or Unsaturated at least one carbon carbon double bond There are 2 essential fatty acids fatty acids that have to be eaten Oleic Linoleic Fatty Acids structure is a long chain of mono carboxylic acids there is always an even number of carbons Triacylglycerols Triacylglycerols AKA Triglycerides make up 90 of our daily dietary lipid intake Triacylglycerols are glycerol molecules and fatty acid molecules combined Hydrolysis of Triacylglycerols separated the CH from the rest of the molecule and an OH get added onto the CH while the rest of the molecule gets the other H molecule http realizebeauty files wordpress com 2014 02 hydrolysis of fatty acids gif Digestion Hydrolysis of a triacylglycerol into smaller molecules is necessary because lipids are too large to diffuse through intestinal membranes This happens with the help of an enzyme called Lipase look up in book Fatty acids not needed for immediate use are reconverted into a triacylglycerol and stored as fat in adipose tissue Reactions of Unsaturated Fatty Acids Hydrogenation adding hydrogen to an unsaturated fatty acid simply break the double bond and hydrogens go where they are needed to make the carbons have 4 bonds Amphipathic Hydrolyzable Lipids Have hydrophilic groups and are the predominant lipids in cell membranes There are two groups Glycerol and Sphingosine Glycerol and Sphingosine are simply the backbones of the Amphipathic Hydrolyzable Lipids Steroids Nonhydrolyzable lipids containing the steroid ring structure B113 in book This group includes Cholesterol adrenocortical and sex hormones Cholesterol Look up info in book Major steroid in animals and although it is advised to lower cholesterol is it critical to many physiological functions Serves as a component of membranes and is a precursor for all other animal steroids The body can synthesize all it needs if it is not in the diet Eicosanoids LOOK UP IN BOOK Nonhydrolyzable lipids derived from the polyunsaturated C20 fatty acids called arachidonic acid Three groups of Eicsanoids Leukotrienes Prostagladins and thromboxanes Hormose regulatory functions but aren t transported in the blood stream local hormones Local Hormones acting in the same tissue in which they were synthesized Look up functions on page B115 and in book Vitamins Organic compounds that are required for normal metabolism but not synthesized in the body and must be part of the diet They can be water soluble or fat soluble Water soluble vitamins include Vitamin B and Vitamin C Fat soluble vitamins include Vitamin A E D and K Protein Functions Catalytic Proteins catalyze the synthesis of proteins carbohydrates lipids and nucleic acids Transport Proteins carry specific molecules or ions from one place to another Regulatory Proteins control cellular activity like lipid hormones There are protein hormones in insulin which regulates glucose metabolism Structural Proteins gives physical shapes to animal structures Ex Collagen is the major structural component in bones cartilage and tendons Contractile Proteins gives cells and organisms the ability to change shape Muscles change shape through actin and myosin Protective Proteins defend against invaders and prevent minimize damage due to injury Storage Proteins reservoir of nitrogen and other nutrients Amino Acids The basic building blocks for all proteins Called Alpha Amino Acids because the carbon containing the amine group is the first carbon past the carboxyl group http upload wikimedia org wikipedia commons 1 1e Alpha amino acid condensed 2D flat png Almost all polypeptides found in plants and animals are made of the 20 alpha amino acids Mammals require all 20 of them for protein synthesis There are 10 nonessential proteins can be produced in the body and 10 essential proteins cannot be produced in the body Alpha Amino Acids are categorized according to the alkyl groups on the alpha carbon I II III IV Nonpolar Neutral alpha amino acids have neutral hydrophobic side groups alkenes Alkanes Polar Neutral alpha amino acids have neutral hydrophilic side groups alcohol ethers ketones aldehydes Polar Acidic alpha amino acids have acidic hydrophilic side groups carboxylic acids Polar Basic alpha amino acids have basic hydrophilic side groups amine amide SEE B120 B121 pages in book for examples Zwitterionic Structure Alpha amino acids exists charged particles due to the acid base nature of these compounds Charged species comes from the proton transfer from the acidic part to the basic part making the Zwitterion They have high melting points and high solubility in water http www cchem berkeley edu erwgrp img nz vs zw gif Peptides Peptides are polyamides formed by amino acids reacting with eachother This reaction can be viewed as dehydration between the carboxyl and amino groups of different amino acids forming a peptide bond Peptides are basically 2 amino acids hooked together by the C Terminal and N


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