UT Knoxville ARTH 183 - Heian Period Art and Introduction to Kamakura Period (4 pages)

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Heian Period Art and Introduction to Kamakura Period

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Heian Period Art and Introduction to Kamakura Period


Finishes discussion of "Tale of Genji/Genji Monogatari" and covers remaining material on Handout 17 underneath "Buddhist Art" header; introduces item one ("Tales of the Heiji/Heiji Monogatari") on Handout 18.

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University of Tennessee
Arth 183 - Asian Art
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ARTH183 1st Edition Lecture 23 Outline of Last Lecture I Nara Period Japan Buddhist Art Continued A Shukongojin historical connection a Figure style Chinese influence b Form Technique clay armature Original paint c International Style influence Realism vs exaggeration B Priest Ganjin historical significance of work and subject a Figure style b Form Technique dry lacquer characteristics Sculpture function C Kichijoten a Subject mixing of religions Empress Koken b Style Similarities to Tang woman convergence of religious and secular c Function significance of garments D End of Nara Period role of Buddhism and Empress Koken II Heian Period Japan 794 1189 CE A emakimono what it is why it became popular a Vernacular novel the Tale of Genji Historical significance Author Subject B Tale of Genji Genji Monogatari characteristics of illustrations a fukinuki yatai b Death scene Homogeneity of figures Overall focus of narrative how it is shown c Role of botanical and structural architectural elements Problem these strategies solve Outline of Current Lecture I Heian Period Japan Court Art Tale of Genji Continued These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute A Ukifune and Naka no Kimi illustration scene it portrays a Double function of illustration b Composition Possible significance of Ukifune s position c Style II Esoteric and Amida Buddhism A Esoteric Vajrayana Buddhism a Characteristics Buddha Nature Relationship to Hinduism b Mandala definition B Mandalas of the Two Worlds Womb World and Diamond World historical significance typical mandala composition Vairochana a Relationship to Chinese Tang art b Womb World Composition hieratic scale c Diamond World Composition Wisdom fist mudra meaning Gold foil technique C Amida Pure Land Buddhism a Characteristics appeal to common people Growth in connection to concept of mappo D Phoenix Hall at Byodo in Temple purpose dedication source of name a Form Style Chinese influence East West orientation lake symbolism b Use by aristocracy experience it was meant to evoke E Amida by Jocho in Phoenix Hall at Byodo in Temple a Amida meditation mudra b Joined wood sculpture method Hollow interior contents c Form Style Wall sculptures of retinue Identifier of Avalokiteshvara its significance III Kamakura Period Japan 1185 1333 CE A Big governing shift its effects on art Introduction to Tales of the Heiji Heiji Monogatari Subject Current Lecture Heian Period Japan Court Art Tale of Genji Continued One of the surviving illustrations happens after Genji s death when the story is focused on his grandson shows Ukifune an illegitimate daughter of a prince who has no social status and her half sister Naka no Kimi seen from the back getting her hair brushed who married well and has status Ukifune is visiting Naka no Kimi for the first time after having a marriage proposal rescinded when the man found out about her low social standing Naka no Kimi s horndog husband spies on Ukifune inappropriately and unsettles her The main figures are seated across from each other on the far left as an attendant reads from a text and the 2 women look at illustrations of it a form of selfentertainment for court women the painting acts as an illustration of the text as well as an illustration of how images like this were used Ukifune s positioning around a corner in the setting s more unstablelooking sharply tilted plane may reflect her desire to hide from the other women internal distress This style is associated with court painting but it is not the only style that was worked in considered appropriate for aristocracy domestic drama subject matter Esoteric and Amida Buddhism Esoteric Vajrayana Buddhism becomes very popular in the early Heian Period Esoteric teachings are revealed gradually each person is believed to have their own personal deity and a Buddha Nature the potentiality to become a Buddha draws a lot on Hinduism multi limbed and headed gods more female gods focus on male female complementarity and sexual union as metaphor for means of achieving enlightenment uses a lot of ritual objects charms and mandalas a diagram of the heavens that shows the relationship of deities Mandalas of the Two Worlds Womb World and Diamond World Heian Period late 9 th c The most important and oldest extant Japanese esoteric Buddhist mandalas the Womb World is female gendered and the Diamond World is male gendered Madalas are usually visually entered from one side and then moved through inwardly in a spiral to the center which always contains Vairochana the Universal Buddha Womb World and Diamond World are thought to be copies of Chinese mandalas There are similarities to the Tang style in use of bright colors skin areas outlined in red ink use of shading circular heads small dainty facial features and horizontal eyes and eyebrows Womb World Shows hieratic scale the degree of enlightenment and size of the figures decrease moving away from the center Closer to the center figures are more formal and still Diamond World is organized differently actually made up of 9 separate mandalas where the One Hand Assembly at top center has a lone Vairochana sitting on a lotus throne performing the wisdom fist mudra that is specific to him Mudra represents the union of wisdom female and compassion male Shows use of gold foil technique where little pieces are applied for a glittery luxurious effect Esoteric Buddhism was especially popular with the aristocracy but not very accessible practical for the masses no time to sit and memorize pantheon of gods emphasized good works acquisition of good karma through art patronage they couldn t afford From the 10th century on Amida Pure Land Buddhism was propogated by priests and became popular with the common people salvation only required devotion and chanting This popularity was also a result of the Buddhist belief in mappo A period of decline in Buddhist law where salvation is unattainable and the best one could hope for was rebirth in a paradise It was believed a mappo began in 1052 CE Phoenix Hall Byodo in Temple Heian Period 1053 CE Byodo in was converted from a Buddhist temple and then an aristocratic villa into a site for worship of Amida Buddha The Phoenix Hall s name comes from the bronze phoenixes on its roof and possibly from its appearance of an avian form when seen from above it combines architectural influence from Chinese Buddhist temples as well as

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