WSU PSYCH 265 - Psychotherapeutic (7 pages)

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psychotherapeutic-ADHD and Alzheimer's Disease

Lecture number:
Lecture Note
Washington State University
Psych 265 - biopsychological effect
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PSYCH 265 1st Edition Lecture 29 Outline of Last Lecture I Brain areas affects in schizo parkinson s II EPS III Extrapyramidal motor control IV Signs of EPS V Etiology of TD VI Treatments of drug abuse VII Abuse potential of neuroleptics VIII Genetics of schizophrenia Outline of Current Lecture I ADHD a Types b Monoamine hypothesis c Neurochemistry d Anti adhd stimulants e Atomoxetine f II Abuse of neurostimulants Dementia a Common cause These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute b Causes c Symptoms III Alzheimer s a Pathology IV Neurofibrillary tangles V Senile plaques VI ChE I Current Lecture ADHD o One of most common childhood disorders can continue through adolescence into adulthood o Affects 9 American children aged 13 18 yo Boys 4x at risk than girls o Affects 4 1 American adults aged 18 and older o Studies show that the number of children being diagnosed with ADHD is increasing but unclear why Types of ADHD o Inattentive type Ease of distraction w focusing organizing o Hyperactive impulse Fidgety restless trouble staying quite impatient o Combined Monoamine Hypothesis of ADHD o Have variations of the transporter genes for these neurotransmitters o Patients with predominantly inattentive ADHD have changes in NE transporter gene Which affects NE levels in brain o Patsies with predominantly hyperactivity impulsive ADHD have changes in DA transport gene thus affecting DA levels in brain o Patients with conduct disorder mood problems that accompany ADHD have changes in serotonin transporter gene Affecting serotonin levels in brain Neurochemistry of ADHD o Sings symptoms of ADHD are attributed to a deficiency of NE and or DA Anti ADHD neurostimulants o Block the reuptake of cause neuronal release of NE DA Atomoxetine straterra o Atomoxetine is a non stimulant that blocks NE reuptake Abuse of neurostimulants o When misused neurostimulants can cause addiction o Common misperception that use of neurostimulants for treatment of ADHD leads to drug addiction o Most adolescents adults who abuse stimulants do not have ADHD Some of these people learned how to present as though they have ADHD in order to obtain stimulants Abuse of neurostimulants o Growing number of teens young adults are abusing prescription stimulants to boost their study performance in an effort to improve their grades in school and there is a widespread belief that these drugs can improve a persons ability to learn cognitive enhancement o Prescription stimulants do promote wakefulness but studies have found that they don t enhance learning or thinking ability when taken bay people who do not actually have ADHD Research has shown that student who abuse prescription stimulants actually have lower GPAs in high school and college than those who don t Do prescription stimulants affect a patients risk of substance abuse o Studies show have found no differences in later substance use for children with ADHD who received treatment those that did not o Suggests treatment w adhd medication appears not to affect either negatively or positively an individuals risk for developing a substance use disorder Dementia o Loss of mental functions such as thinking memory and reasoning that is severe enough to interfere with a persons daily functioning o Not a disease itself but a group of symptoms that are caused by various diseases or conditions o Symptoms can also include changes in personality mood and behavior o True dementia cannot be cured Most common cause of dementia o Develops when parts of the brain that are involved w learning memory decision making and language are affected by one or more of a variety of diseases or infections o Most common cause is alzheimer s diesease but there are as many as 50 other known o Alzheimer s causes 50 60 of all dementias Causes of dementia o Alzheimer s o Vascular dementia o Dementia w lewy bodies DLB o Mixed dementia o Parkinson s o Frontotemporal dementia o Creutzfeldt jakob disease o Normal pressure hydrocephalus o Huntington s disease o Wericke koraskoff syndrome Symptoms of dementia o Difficulty with many areas of mental function Language Memory Perception Emotional behavior or personality Cognitive skills such as calculation abstract thinking or judgment Usually appears first as forgetfulness Epidemiology of alzheimer s disease o Prevalence 1 6 both overall in 65 74 age group w rate increasing to 19 in 75 84 group to 42 in greater than 84 group o Incidence 5 8 1000 compared to 10 15 10000 for all dementias Every 5 yrs after age 65 risk of acquiring the disease approximately doubles increasing from 3 69 1000 Pathology of alzheimer s disease o Post mortem examination of brains tissues of patients w alzheimers disease will reveal the following changes Neurofibrillary tangles Amyloid plaques Neurofibrillary tangles o Insoluble twisted fibers found in neurons o Consist of protein called tau Forms part of microtubules which transport nutrients and other substaces from one part of the nerve to another o Alzheimer s disease the tau protein is abnormal and the microtubule structures collapse Senile plaques o Beta amyloid is a protein fragment snipped from an amyloid precursor protein APP o In healthy brain these protein fragments are broken down and elminated In alzheimers fragments accumulate to form hard insoluble plaques Alzheimer s disease o o Ach neurons in hippocampus play important role in memory Loss of Ach neurons in hippocampus reduces activation of Ach receptors Resulting in memory loss Cholinesterase Inhibitors ChE I o Prevent Ach degradation leading to increased levels of synaptic Ach o Increased activation of Ach receptors slows the loss of memory o Improvement is only temporary as cell death of Ach neurons continues

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