SC BIOL 460 - Respiration (3 pages)

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Respiration and the Lungs

Lecture number:
Lecture Note
University Of South Carolina-Columbia
Biol 460 - General Physiology
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BIOL 460 1st Edition Lecture 27 Outline of Last Lecture I Blood Pressure a Hypertension II Respiratory System a Respiration b Lung c Diaphragm d Boyle s Law Outline of Current Lecture I Boyle s Law II Spirometer III Lung Diseases a Restrictive b Obstructive IV Gas exchange in Lungs V Starlings Forces Current Lecture 1 Boyles Law a P 1 V b Average atmospheric pressure 760 mmHg c Inhalation i Contract inspiratory muscles diaphragm ii Increases volume iii Decreases pressure 757 mmHg iv Air moves from high to low pressure d Exhalation i Expiratory muscles rather unimportant in normal breathing ii Mostly elastic recoil iii Volume down pressure increases to 763 mmHg iv Table 16 1 intrapleural pressure always lower than intrapulmonic pressure l lungs can never completely collapse v Collapse 1 Only in pneumothorax 2 Air in intrapleural space 3 Gunshot wound stab wound scuba These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute 2 Spirometer a Measures breath b Spirometry breathing measurements c Measures vital capacity air you can blow into spirometer d Tidal volume normal breathing e Inspiratory reserve how much more air you can breathe in than tidal volume f Expiratory reserve volume how much is left until you hit residual volume g Vital capacity inhale until it hurts 3 Lung Diseases a Restrictive i Vital capacity less than normal ii Due to damage to lung tissues iii Pulmonary fibrosis deposition of connective tissue fibers in tissues of lungs b Obstructive i Vital capacity is normal ii No damage to tissue iii Difficult to exhale iv Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD 1 5th leading cause of death in US 2 Chronic bronchitis inflammation bronchoconstriction 3 Asthma 4 Emphysema v Diagnose COPD via forced expiratory volume of vital capacity exhaled in first second 4 Gas Exchange in the lungs a Air pressure at sea level is 760 mmHg b Dalton s law total pressure sum of all of the partial pressures c Partial pressure directly proportional to amount of air that gas holds d Air is 21 O2 21 760 159 mmHg e 79 N2 0 79 760 593 mmHg f Alveolar Air i Fresh air mixes with old air ii Partial pressures different g Blood gas measurements measured by blood gas analyzer i O2 electrode ii Only sees blood dissolved in plasma iii Normal healthy person 100mmHg O2 h ppO2 100mmHg i plasma or water holds 0 3mL O2 100mL ii Henry s law amount of gas dissolved in fluid is approximately solubility partial pressure Temperature iii Double pp double gas dissolved i 100mL blood at ppO2 100mmHg i 20mL O2 100mL blood ii 0 3mL in plasma iii 19 7mL bound to hemoglobin iv hemoglobin is 97 saturated with O2 j Taking O2 i ii iii iv 100 ppO2 760 mmHg 1 5mL O2 dissolved in blood 19 7mL bound to hemoglobin 21 2 mL in blood Leads to more O2 in interstitial fluid because it isn t bound 5x increase of O2 in interstitial fluid

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