SC CHEM 111 - Chem 111 note cards (3 pages)

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Chem 111 note cards



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Chem 111 note cards

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These are notes on specific topics that were placed on 3x5 note cards to be brought in so one could use it during the exam


Pages:
3
School:
University Of South Carolina-Columbia
Course:
Chem 111 - General Chemistry I
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Polyatomics Acetate CH3CO2 Carbonate CO32 Bicarbonate HCO3 Chlorate ClO3 PwechlorateClO4 Chromate CrO42 Cyanide CN DiChromate Cr2O72 Hydroxide OH Nitrate NO3 Nitrite NO2 Permangate MnO4 Phosphate PO43 Hydrogen Phosphate HPO42 DiHydrogen Phosphate H2PO4 Sulfate SO42 Hydrogen Sulfate bisulfate HSO4 Sulfite SO32Endo H 0 Exo H 0 Solubility Ions Group 1A Cations NH4 Nitrate NO3 Perchlorate ClO4 Acetate CH3CO2 Chlorides bromides and iodides EXCEPT Ag Hg2 Pb2 Sulfates EXCEPT Hg Pb Sr Ba Insoluble Ions Carbonate EXCEPT Group 1A NH4 Phosphate EXCEPT Group 1A NH4 Hydroxide OH EXCEPT Group 1A NH4 Sr Ba ACIDS Ide Hydro ic acid Ate ic Acid Ite ous Acid Extensive Property deals with size mass volume and length Intensive Property deals with everything else Physcial Properties Measured without changing the composition of a sample mass volume color Chemical Properties the reactivity of a material explosiveness and flammability Also the fact that gold does not react with water Physical Change Occurs without a change in composition of the substance Frezzing is an example Chemical Change The substance is converted into a different kind of matter the rusting of iron or burning of wood Homogeneous Mixtures uniform throughout Heterogeneous Changes throughout mixture Accuracy Agreement of the measured value with the true accepted value Precision agreement among repeated measurements Daltons Theory 1 Matter is composed of small indivisible particles called atoms The atom is the smallest unit of an element that has all the properties of that element 2 An element is composed entirely of one type of atom The chemical properties of all atoms of any element are the same 3 A compound contains atoms of two or more different elements The relative number of atoms of each element in particular compound is always the same 4 Atoms do not change their identities in chemical reactions Chemical reactions rearranged only how atoms are joined together Electrolytes refers to a substance that produces ions when dissolved in water conducts electricity Non Electrolytes water and compounds that dissolve in water P1V1 T1 P2V2 T2 PV NRT N PV RT R values 08206 L atm mol K 8 314 Kg m2 s2 mol K 8 314 J mol K 1 987 cal mol K 1atm 760mmHg or 760torr or 101 325Kpa 1torr 133 3Pa Effusion Tb Ta molar mass of b molar mass of a Dilution Titrations M1V1 M2V2 Molarity moles liters Molar mass g mole Molar Volume volume of a gas 22 4liters 1mole Avogadros moles to molecules 6 02x1023 Specific Heat Q MCs T m mass in grams Cs specific heat T final initial Temp Conversions Tf Tc 1 8 10 32 Tc Tf 32 1 1 8 Organic Compounds CnH2n 2 Dissociation separation of a compound in water Combustion creates CO2 and H20 in products Daltons Law partial pressure Pt Pa Pb Properties GAS fluid with no definite shape or volume LIQUID fluid with fixed volume and no shape SOLID both fixed volume and shape Average Speed of a Particle Urms 3RT molar mass kg thousand grams in a kilogram Neutralization acid base H20 salt Quantum s N L L at its max N 1 ML is between L L Ms 1 2 or 1 2 Finding N for quantum s S 0 P 1 D 2 F 3 G 4 n is from orbitals Forces strongest to weakest 1 H bonding only to N F O 2 Dipole Dipole 3 London Dispersion P T trends ELECTRONEGATIVITY IONIZATION ENERGY Size Radius Lattice Energy Q1Q2 R the smaller R distance will have greater lattice energy Ho sum of moles of products sum of moles of reactants Go gibbs free energy So entropy HOWEVER all equations are the same as Ho Steric of bonding groups pair of electrons on central atom 2 3 2 4 3 Electron pair Geometry Molecular Geometry Bond Angle 2 3 3 4 4 of lone pair electrons on the central atom 0 0 1 0 1 Linear Trigonal Planar Trigonal Planar Tetrahedral Tetrahedral 180 120 Less than 120 109 5 Less than 109 5 4 5 2 0 2 5 5 1 4 5 2 3 5 3 2 6 6 0 1 6 5 Tetrahedral Trigonal Bipyramidal Trigonal Bipyramidal Trigonal Bipyramidal Trigonal Bipyramidal Octahedral Octahedral Linear Trigonal Planar Bent Tetrahedral Trigonal Pyramidal Bent Trigonal Bipyramidal Seesaw 6 2 4 Octahedral T shaped Less than 109 5 90 120 and 180 90 120 and 180 90 and 180 Linear 180 Octahedral Square Pyramidal Square Planar 90 and 180 90 and 180 90 and 180 Electronegativity inc going up and over to the right Electron Affinity the amount of energy that is released when the electron attaches to the atom Formal charges Valence e individual bonds the sum of each lone electron connected to the atom Molecular orbital theory steric model that combines the atomic orbitals that are shaped over the entire molecule not counting each individual bond steric is of lone pairs of bond regions to the central atom Molecules that dissatisfy octet rule Expanded octets P S CL As Se Br Te I Xe Deficient octet Groups 2A and 3A Lattice Energy Compound energy LiF 1036 LiCl 853 LiBr 807 LiI 757 NaF 923 NaCl 786 NaBr 747 NaI 704 KF 821 KCl 715 KBr 682 KI 649 CsCl 657 MgF2 2957 MgCl2 2526 MgBr2 2440 MgI2 2327 CaCl2 2258 Na2O 2481 MgO 3791 CaO 3401 Lattice equation energy kQ1Q2 d BOND ENERGY enthalpy sum of reactants sum of products Hybridization steric orbital bond angle 2 sp 180 3 sp2 120 4 sp3 109 5 sp3d 6 sp3d2 90 and 180 Diamagnetic no unpaired electrons Paramagnetic has unpaired electrons Bond order of electrons in bonding orbital of electrons in antibonding orbitals Bond order if answer from equation is or 0 it cant naturally occur BUT if it is then it can occur in nature stable Lewis structure process 1 write the skeleton structure 2 Sum the valence electrons 3 subtract two electrons for each bond in the skeleton structure 4 count of electrons needed to satisfy octet rule for each atom if the of electrons needed equals the remaining go to 5 if fewer electrons remain add 1 bond for every 2 additional electrons needed 5 place remaining electrons as lone pairs to satisfy octet rule for each atom not H Valence Bond Theory Describes the bonds as being formed by partially filled valence orbitals Isomers different compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures Cis symmetrical Trans Inverse Molecular Orbital setup write these inorder going from bottom to top sigma2s sigma2s pi2p sigma2p pi2p sigma2p Molecular Orbital setup If O2 F2 Ne2 then the order switches after sigma2s Molecular Orbital setup to determine the orbital use the higher ionization energy lower energy of atomic orbital ionization inc up and to the right GEOMETRY OF COMPOUNDS steric bonded atom arrangement molecular geometry 2 linear linear 3 trigonal planar 1 lone pair Bent 4


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