TAMU BICH 411 - Exam 3 Study Guide (14 pages)

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Exam 3 Study Guide

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Exam 3 Study Guide


A review of chapters 22-24.

Study Guide
Texas A&M University
Bich 411 - Comprehen Biochem Ii

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Bich 411 1st Edition Exam 3 Study Guide Lectures 1318 Chapters 22 24 Chapter 22 lectures 13 15 Gluconeogenesis forming glucose from metabolites necessary for the body to maintain its own energy mostly in the endoplasmic reticulum of the liver and kidneys gluconeogenesis can use pyruvate lactate glycerol amino acids and all TCA intermediates fatty acids can t be used note that it s not just reversed glycolysis when one is on the other is off reciprocal regulation see figure 22 1 it relates glycolysis and gluconeogenesis gluconeogenesis uses steps 2 and 4 9 of glycolysis to produce glucose pyruvate carboxylase and PEP carboxylase replace pyruvate kinase Fructose 1 6 bisphosphatase replaces phosphofructokinase Glucose 6 phosphatase replaces hexokinase Unique Gluconeogenesis reactions Step 1 pyruvate HCO3 ATP oxaloacetate ADP Pi with Pyruvate Carboxylase Requires ATP and bicarbonate It is also very biotin dependent biotin linked with lysine Acetyl coA is an allosteric activator Also note that when ATP or acetyl CoA concentrations are high pyruvate enters gluconeogenesis This reaction is the initiation of gluconeogenesis Step 2 Oxaloacetate GTP PEP GDP CO2 with PEP carboxylase This reaction gets its energy from decarboxylation and GTP hydrolysis Step 3 Fructose 1 6 Bisphosphate H2O Fructose 6 Phosphate Pi with Fructose 1 6Bisphosphatase Fructose 1 6 Bisphosphatase is regulated by citrate positively and fructose2 6 bisphosphatase and AMP negatively Step 4 Glucose 6 Phosphate Glucose with Glucose 6 Phosphatase This involves 3 transport proteins T1 is responsible for taking Glucose 6 phosphate to the endoplasmic reticulum T2 exports glucose to the cytosol T3 exports inorganic phosphates to the cytosol GLUT 2 transporter takes the glucose out of the endoplasmic reticulum and cell Net equation 2 pyruvate 4ATP 2 GTP 2 NADH 2 H 6 H2O 1 glucose 4 ADP 2 GDP 6 Pi 2 NAD Metformin stimulates the glucose transporters 3 Mercaptopicolinate and hydrazine inhibit the oxaloacetate PEP

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