TAMU ANSC 107 - Comparative Digestive Systems (8 pages)

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Comparative Digestive Systems

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Comparative Digestive Systems


Lecture number:
Lecture Note
Texas A&M University
Ansc 107 - General Animal Science
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ANSC 107 1nd Edition Lecture 20 Outline of previous lecture I II III Environmental physiology Factors affecting critical temperature Effects of light on animal performance a Ventilation b Animal waste management Outline of current lecture I Digestion a Monogastric b Ruminant II Urea cycle Current Lecture 1 Digestion a The breaking down process of food to allow absorption b Combination of action a Mechanical salivating b Chemical chewing stomach turning c Microbrial stomach large intestine cecum c Continuous process along alimentary canal 2 Classification of digestive systems a Monogastric a One stomach b Humans and swine b Modified monogastric a Single stomach but specialized componets that aid in digestion b Horse and birds c Ruminant These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute a More than one stomach compartment b Sheep cattle goat llamas 3 Monogastric tract a Cecum inlarge in a horse b Jujunum start absorbing amino acids c 18 24 hours its gone 4 Ruminant tract a Rumen dinosaur would prey on ruminants b Takes 72 96 hours to go through passage rate c Most important part of the rumen is bacteria inside a At winter supplement the bacteria 5 Passage rate a Monogastric a 10 20 hours b Ruminants a 96 120hours b Rumination occurs 6 8 hours a day 1 Called ruminating 6 Mouth a Salivary glands secrete a Water moistens the feed and aids in taste mechanisms b Mucin lubrication aid for swallowing c Bicarbonate salts act as a buffer to regulate stomach pH d Hormone thyroxin 1 Lubrication down esophagus e Hydrochloric acid 7 Mouth difference a Swine secretion of salivary amylase 8 Esophagus a Ingested material moves via muscular contraction know as peristaltic waves 9 Esophagus differences a Horse only one way peristaltic waves b Ruminants two way movement that allows for regurgitation of bolus for chewing of cud a Esophageal groove 10 Determination reaction a Breaks bond to allow nitrogen to be taken and moved to make mythene 11 Stomach a Reticulum 5 b Rumen 80 c Omasum 7 8 d Abomasum 8 9 12 Reticulum honeycomb a Not completely separated from rumen b Wall are lined with mucus membrane containing many intersecting ridges which subdividing the surface into a honey comb like surface 13 Rumen a Large hollow muscular compartment which extends from the diaphragm to the pelvis and nearly fills the left side of the abdominal cavity in large dairy cow b Wall or rumen lined with papillae and secrete no enzymes c Absorbs nitrogen fatty acids VFA 14 Function of the rumen a Storage b Soaking c Physical mixing and breakdown d Fermentation chamber provides ideal environment for microbial activity a Bacterial synthesis of water soluble vitamins and vitamin K as well as deamination reaction e Vitamin K and Blood clotting f Dichomeral rat poison heart patients 15 Volatille Fatty Acids a Three main energy sources in ruminant diet b Not utilized efficiently in swine and horse because of location of synthesis a Produces 1 Propioniate energy glucose 2 Acetate high in grazing animals 3 Butyrate no change 16 Rumen and microbes a Rumen provide bacteria a Warm moist dark anaerobic condition b Proper pH 6 8 c Substrate grass b Bacteria provide rumen a VFA b Microbial c Vitamin K d B vitamins e Combine N from dietary protein or non protein N source with a carbon Skelton from carbohydrate sources to form their own body protein 17 Eructation a Belching of gas a Microbial fermentation in the rumen produces large amounts of CO2 and methane b If these gases are not released the animal will bloat which can result in death 1 To much green gas 18 Urea cycle a Mechanism that takes nitrogen across the rumen wall back to the salivary glands in order to preserve nitrogen in the system a Supplement in the winter 19 Omasum a A spherical organ filled with muscular laminae which are studded with short papillae b Functions a Reduction of particle size b Absorption of water 20 Esophageal groove a A passage way extending from the cardia to abomasum formed by two heavy muscular folds b Function to allow milk consumed by the sucking animal to bypass the reticulo rumen and thus escape bacterial fermentation 21 Colostrum a Milk produced up until 30 hours after birth that provides nutrients and antibodies needed to develop in the immune system b Gap junctions c Start digestion in abomasum d More energy dense 22 Abomasum true stomach a First glandular portion of the ruminant b Essentially the same as the stomach in non ruminants 23 Stomach swine and horse a Ph around 2 3 b Storage of ingested food c Muscular movements cause physical breakdown d Secretes a Gastrin b Hydrochloric acid c Pepsn d Rennin 24 Stomach horse a Larger than other species b Two regions glandular and non glandular which are divided by the margo pilcatus a Ulcers 25 Gastrin a Hormone that causes release of digestive enzymes b Released in response to stimul a Stomach distension b Presence of partially digested proteins especially amino acids c Hyperclcemia c Inhibited by a Presence of acid in stomach b Somatostatin 26 Hydroclhoric acid a Activates pepsin a Break down protein b Constitutes the majority of gastric acid c Secreted by parietal cells 27 Pepsinogen a Pepsin is a proteolytic enzyme that begins protein digestion b Released by the chief cell c Degrades food protein into peptides 28 Rennin a A natural complex of enzymes produced in any mammalian stomach to digest the mother milk 29 Small intestine a Three sections a Duodenum b Jejunum c Ileum 30 Duodenum a Receives secretion from a Bunner gland alkaline secretion b Pancreas secretes majority of digestive jucies with hormone secretin 1 Produces all those enzymes cant digest food without b Graph a Chymotrypsin protein b Trypsin protein c Lipase triglycerides lipids d Amylase carbohydrates starch 31 Jujunum a Active site of nutrient absorption a Amino acids b Sugar molecules c Fatty acid d Glycerol b Villi increase absorptive area 32 Ileum a Active site of nutrient absorption 33 Liver a Bile salts emulsify fats activate lipase a Breakdown so it can be digested b Breakdown lipids activate lipase b Cholesterol a Bile salt that emulsify fat and neutralize acidic chime are stored in the gall bladder 1 Have to change diet with no galbadder 2 Don t eat fats b Detoxifies c Metabolize d Makes energy 34 Large intestine a Three section a Cecum b Colon c Rectum b Microbial digestion VFA horse c Absorption of water d

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