TAMU BICH 411 - Test 3 Review (3 pages)

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Test 3 Review

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Test 3 Review


Review for test 3.

Lecture number:
Lecture Note
Texas A&M University
Bich 411 - Comprehen Biochem Ii
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BICH 411 1st Edition Lecture 22 Outline of Last Lecture I Purine synthesis II Purine degradation III Pyrimidine Synthesis IV Pyrimidine Degradation Outline of Current Lecture I Test 3 Review Current Lecture Test over chapters 22 24 Gluconeogenesis pathway all the internal steps use the same enzymes as glycolysis in reverse memorize figure 22 8 note the reciprocal regulation figure 22 4 note that pyruvate has to become malate to leave mitochondria Then it converts to oxaloacetate and continues to gluconeogenesis figure 22 5 glucose 6 p transformation to glucose in the endoplasmic reticulum requires transporters and glucose 6 phosphatase T1 transports the glucose 6 phosphate into the ER lumen where glucose 6 phosphatase separates the glucose and phosphate The glucose goes through T2 and the phosphate goes through T3 out of the ER membrane Then GLUT2 transports the glucose out of the plasma membrane remember that fructose 2 6 bisphosphate is important for gluconeogenesis regulation It activates phosphofructokinase and inactivates fructose 1 6 bisphosphatase figure 22 10 PFK 2 and Fructose 2 6 bisphosphatase are ends of a tandem bifunctional enzyme review the Cori cycle it is the cycle of how liver and muscle cooperate with lactate metabolism Note that the liver has high NAD NADH while the muscle has low NAD NADH These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute review glycogen and how the branching enzyme and amylase function Amylase found in saliva and pancreatic juices cleaves 4 glucose units away form the branch Glycogen synthase the first glucose unit attaches to the Tyrosine OH on glycogenin This initiates the glycogen synthesis Also note the oxonium ion intermediate remember that when the pyrophosphate is released in UDP glucose formation it takes 2 ATPs to put them back on a UMP to form UTP study figure 22 15 study the regulation reference slide This ll help keep track of the regulatory components Remember the 4 cases in the cell where glycolysis and pentose phosphate can be used both ribose 5 P and NADPH are needed more ribose 5 P is needed than NADPH more NADPH is needed than ribose 5 P both NADPH and ATP are needed but not ribose 5 P Carnitine is necessary for transportation of the fatty acid for oxidation The activation occurs in the cytosol and then carnitine transports the fatty acyl CoA into the mitochondria Be able to figure out figure 23 16 where the ATPs are coming from and how they re used for odd carbon fatty acid oxidation know the reactions and enzymes for converting propionylCoA to succinyl CoA Don t worry about the mechanisms remember acetyl CoA carboxylase ACC sends acetate to fatty acid synthesis It requires bicarbonate ATP and biotin the animal enzyme has 3 functions on one polypeptide elongation of fatty acids takes place in the mitochondria note the NADPH figure 24 16 this is a good slide to know It shows the regulation of fatty acid synthesis in the mitochondria review cholesterol synthesis study figure 24 17 how glucagon and insulin affect fatty acid synthesis figure 24 19 shows glycerolipid synthesis note that PE and PC come from diacylglycerol

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