TAMU ANSC 318 - Dairy Cattle Nutrition and Feeding III/Swine Nutrition and Feeding I (6 pages)

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Dairy Cattle Nutrition and Feeding III/Swine Nutrition and Feeding I

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Dairy Cattle Nutrition and Feeding III/Swine Nutrition and Feeding I


Disorders with Lactating Dairy Cattle and Introduction to Swine Nutrition and Feeding

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Lecture Note
Texas A&M University
Ansc 318 - Feeds & Feeding
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ANSC 318 1st Edition Lecture 22 Outline of Last Lecture I Dairy Nutrition Feeding Systems and Body Condition Scores Outline of Current Lecture II Nutritional Recommendations a Phase IV Dry Period b Phase V Transition Period c Nutritional Management III Metabolic Disorders Relating to Nutrition in Dairy Cattle a Milk Fever i Pre calving diet ii Prevention b Ketosis c Displaced Abomasum IV Swine Nutrition and Feeding a Pork Production Current Lecture Dairy Cattle Nutrition and Feeding Nutritional Recommendations Phase IV Dry Period Goals to Achieve optimize fetal growth prepare cow for next lactation regenerate mammary gland minimize length of dry period about 60 days feed cows to achieve target BCS at calving 3 5 Feeding Recommendations separate dry cows from lactating cows feed higher roughage lower energy based diets energy requirement lowers during this period avoid high grain diets to prevent abomasal displacement twisting of the abomasum or omasum that blocks digestive tracts avoid feeding excess Ca levels to prevent milk fever These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute Nutritional Recommendations Phase I Early Phase II Mid Phase III Late Phase IV Dry Milk Production 74 60 30 0 lb day NEl Mcal lb DM 0 78 0 75 0 69 0 57 Crude Protein 18 16 15 12 UIP 6 3 5 8 5 4 DIP 10 4 10 0 8 8 ADF 19 20 21 27 Calcium 0 68 0 62 0 53 0 39 Phosphorous 0 42 0 40 0 34 0 24 Vitamin A IU lb 1 450 1 450 1 450 1 800 Vitamin D IU lb 450 450 450 540 Vitamin E IU lb 7 7 7 7 Phase V Transition Period part of the dry period Goals to Achieve acclimate rumen microbes to diet that will be fed during early lactation high grain proper acclimation will allow cows to be switched over with minimal digestive upsets prevents acidosis Feeding Recommendations feed 0 5 1 0 of BW as grain to prevent acidosis continue to limit intake of Ca to prevent milk fever ionic salts feed negative cation anion balanced diet feed high levels of vitamins A E to prevent mastitis Nutritional Recommendations minimum nutritional specification for transition cows NEl 0 65 0 70 Mcal lb Crude Protein 13 14 UIP 4 3 5 3 DIP 8 7 9 7 ADF 30 35 Calcium 0 36 0 41 Phosphorous 0 22 0 25 Potassium 0 70 0 80 Vitamin A 2 200 IU lb Vitamin D 600 IU lb Vitamin E 15 IU lb Metabolic Disorders Relating to Nutrition in Dairy Cows high producing dairy cows are forced to make major metabolic adjustments at calving tremendous nutrient shift occurs at calving cows shift nutrient utilization to support high levels of milk production cows begin to mobilize body tissue to maintain homeostasis ability to consume feed stays behind nutrient need for the first 8 10 weeks cows are very susceptible to nutritional disorders during this time Nutritional Disorders some with avg cost Milk Fever 344 Ketosis 145 Retained Placentas or Metritis 266 Fat cow syndrome displaced abomasum 340 Mastitis Milk Fever Occurs when low blood calcium 80 of cases happen within 2 days of calving clinical milk fever cases are between 8 9 Ca more prevalent in high producing cows and those with history of milk fever rarely occurs during a cow s first lactation Symptoms Clinical Cases hypocalcemia 5 5 mg Ca dL typical for nonlactating 9 4 mg dL and lactating 7 7 mg dL usually within 2 days of calving inactive GIT less rumination cows appear dull and listless uncoordinated walking downer cows unable to get up more susceptible to mastitis ketosis dystocia displaced abomasum and uterine prolapse Sub Clinical Cases hypocalcemia 8 mg Ca dL higher risk for mastitis ketosis dystocia displaced abomasum and uterine prolapse Impacts of precalving diet on milk fever a 1 100 lb dairy cow requires about 30 to 40 g of Ca day during the dry period to meet daily requirements for maintenance and fetal growth during late gestation feeding 100 g of Ca day during dry period will increase chances of milk fever when cows are fed excess Ca during late gestation the mechanisms to absorb Ca from the GIT and mobilize Ca reserves from the bone are reduced so right after calving demand for Ca skyrockets and absorption cannot kept up because mobilization is depressed meaning hypocalcemia Preventing Milk Fever Traditional Method Feed low Ca 0 4 diets during the dry period feeding the cow less Ca than required will cause a negative Ca balance situation making cow think she is deficient and increasing mobilization ability before calving enables cow to mobilize Ca digestion and stores more efficiently to meet requirements formulating low Ca diets for dry cows is difficult and is not always successful in prevention Remember Forages are generally high in Ca Preventing Milk Fever Newer Method Feed negative dairy cation anion balance DCAB during the dry period DCAB is the sum of the positively charged ions cations and the negatively charges ions anions Cations aka alkalogenic ions Na and K Anions aka acidogenic ions Cl and S DCAB meq 100 g DM Na 0 023 K 0 034 Cl 0 0355 S 0 016 negative DCAB before calving will activate mechanisms to increase Ca mobilization and absorption don t factor in Ca Current Dry Cow Nutritional Recommendations to Prevent Milk Fever DCAB is 10 to 15 meq 100 g diet DM avoid feeding high K level forages add sulfate salts until S is maximized at 0 4 to 0 5 of diet Add chloride salts until DCAB is lowered to 10 to 15 meq 100 g DM Challenges anion salts are more expensive high levels of anions salts decrease palatability Ketosis Occurrence incidence of clinical ketosis cases is about 2 15 about 50 of cows exhibit borderline ketosis most cases occur within 60 days of calving Symptoms elevated about 40 mg dL ketone bodies hydroxybutyrate normal levels of ketone bodies 10 mg dL depressed blood glucose levels distinctive acetone like odor of the breath and fresh milk appetite and milk production decrease ketosis is developed gradually cows seldom die from ketosis Prevention avoid excess BCS at calving use good transition diet during phase V maximize DMI during early lactation feed oral glucose precursors i e propylene glycol or sodium propionate feed niacin b complex vitamin Supplement with niacin for 2 weeks pre calving and the first 2 3 months of lactation Displaced Abomasum Occurrence typically occurs in about 3 of cattle usually occurs within the first month of calving high producing cows are predisposed older cows are more prone than first calf heifers pre partum nutrition and management of the

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