UT Knoxville CCI 150 - Exam 3 Study Guide (9 pages)

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Exam 3 Study Guide

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Exam 3 Study Guide


This study guide covers all the information you need to know for exam 3. It covers the topics news, research, public relations, and advertising.

Study Guide
University of Tennessee
Cci 150 - Communication/Information Age
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CCI 150 1st Edition Exam 3 Study Guide Lectures 17 22 Lecture 17 November 4th This is what you need to know about the different aspects of news 1 We decide what news is every day What is news to one person may not be news to another 2 News is relative What makes news varies by location The biggest TV news story may not be the same as the biggest print story It s also relative for individual Celebrity news politics sports crime 3 News values What makes news newsworthy There are seven news values Most news stories contain more than one of the seven Timeliness News is current It just happened or is just about to happen There is a reason it is called news Proximity you ll hear more if it happens nearby National and international stories are bigger stories when they can be localized ex local station found a woman that used to live in Gatlinburg but has moved to Hawaii and is now being affected by the erupting volcano Impact the people affected the bigger the story impact means YOUR audience The more people affected the more impact The ultimate impact story is the weather Prominence any person or thing that is well known is more likely to make news Bigger names make bigger news People places organizations and objects can all be prominent For example is divorce really national news It usually becomes news when the people are famous Conflict Conflict creates drama Do we really like bad news Courts war public meetings and even sports stories are conflict The bizarre or the unusual Out of the ordinary makes news News of the weird Weirdo Wednesday News Dumb crook News Currency Water cooler news Hot topics make news but this varies over time Before September 11th never heard about homeland security Ebola is currently a hot topic 4 Gatekeeper You decide If you work in news you become a gatekeeper Is it news What goes first What photo runs You are in charge of these decisions 5 Agenda Setting News does not tell us WHAT to think But if often does tell us what to think ABOUT 6 Factors that influence news News Hole Space left for news after advertising goes in newspaper The size of print publications is always determined by ads Not news so the news hole varies in size News flow Some days there is just more news than other days and you just don t really have any control over that at all A local angle on a national international story Staffing having more or less resources people to cover the news Audience expectations Availability of material including art usually means photography Competition always competing Lecture 18 November 6th This is the rest of the information you need to know about news 1 Trends in the news See news chapter in the text for historic overview of news Basically you need to know the periods of the past and the characteristics of them Nonstop coverage increased competition The world wide web increased it more Citizen journalism adds pressure 2 The Drudge Report Untrained journalist breaks big story Monica Lewinski Similar sites bloggers forces traditional media to cover stories 3 Media Bias Most journalists work hard to avoid bias or even the appearance of bias Don t confuse opinion pieces with news 4 From the SPJ code of ethics Examine their own cultural values and avoid imposing those values on others Support the open exchange of views even views they find repugnant Distinguish between advocacy and news reporting Analysis and commentary should be labeled and not misrepresent fact or context 5 Broadcast news Packages of visuals and sound fast paced high pressure and demands immediate gratification Appearance matters if on air Ratings are everything Speed Matters Scoops contacts matter A good journalist is a good generalist needs to be able to report on all kinds of things Lots of general knowledge Who the hell cares what you think don t put your opinion in the story 6 What makes news newsworthy YOU decide Both as audience and gatekeepers Lecture 19 November 11th This is everything you need to know about how research is done 1 Two types of Research Primary is research you did yourself Survey poll focus group interview content analysis Secondary is research done by others You can get useful data from census government records other companies libraries 2 Conducting a census We all know that the U S government conducts a census every 10 years but the word census means more than just that Conducting a census means polling EVERY PERSON in a given population 3 A census is good because it could be 100 accurate if every person responds and gives you a true answer A census is difficult because it s nearly impossible to poll everybody it s expensive and it takes too long 4 If you can t do a census then you can conduct a survey from a SAMPLE of the population That is you can poll just a few people Can be just as accurate 5 There are two types of sampling Convenience sampling and probability scientific sampling 6 Convenience Sample means polling an audience that is easy to find convenient Man on the street interviews online polls YOU choose to complete telephone polls YOU choose to complete 7 Probability Sampling Probability sampling means taking a poll of an audience in a scientific way It is also called RANDOM sampling It means that EVERY person in a given population has an EQUAL chance of being chosen to participate Probability sampling is more accurate than convenience sampling It is reliable meaning if you do the same poll again you ll probably get similar results Most surveys are done this way especially if the results are important 8 Why is random sampling so good Everyone has the same chance of being chosen and it s almost as accurate as a census 9 Sample Size It s hard to get a truly random sample So the more people included the more accurate results SO the bigger the sample size the more accurate the results 10 The Magic Number Means the number of people you have to survey to be representative of ANY size population In a truly random survey just 384 people can be 95 percent accurate for ANY size population even for the whole world As the sample size goes up the margin of error goes down 11 The problem Getting a good sample size is REALLY hard Even the pros don t agree on the results sometimes You can be 100 percent accurate only with a census So any sample survey must have MARGIN OF ERROR Margin of error means how likely it is to be wrong 12 Margin of error means how likely a survey is to be wrong It is usually stated as plus or minus 13 In a survey Candidate Joe has 47

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