UNT SOCI 4250 - Chapter 4 Vocab (2 pages)

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Chapter 4 Vocab



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Chapter 4 Vocab

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School:
University of North Texas
Course:
Soci 4250 - Gender and Society
Gender and Society Documents
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Chapter 4 How Do We Learn Gender 1 Socialization a fundamental concept for sociologists in general defined as the ways in which we learn to become a member of any group 2 Gender socialization the process through which individuals learn the gender norms of their society come to develop an internal gender identity 3 Gender norms the sets of rules for what is appropriate masculine feminine behavior in a given culture 4 Gender identity the way in which being feminine or masculine a woman or a man becomes an internalized part of the way we think about ourselves 5 Intersexed individuals who for a variety of reasons do not fit into the contemporary AngloEuropean biological sex categories of male female 6 Genital tubercle undifferentiated organ in embryos that will develop into a penis or clitoris 7 Hermaphrodites common term for intersexed individuals comes from the Greek name for a mythical figure formed from the fusion of a man a woman 8 Target of socialization the person being socialized 9 Agents of socialization the people groups institutions who are doing the socializing 10 Social learning theory developed in psychology from the legacy of behaviorism we learn through the selective rewarding withholding of rewards or punishing of behavior 11 Sex typed behaviors a behavior is sex typed when it is more expected therefore seen as appropriate when performed by one sex but less expected therefore seen as inappropriate when performed by the other sex 12 Identification where a child copies whole patterns of behavior without necessarily being trained or rewarded for doing so 13 Cognitive development theory seeks to explain the ways in which children acquire a sense of a gender identity the ability to gender type themselves others 14 Gender stability children know that their gender is permanent that is the gender they will be for the rest of their lives 15 Gender constancy brings an understanding that even changing the outward physical appearance of a person does not change their underlying sex category 16 Gender congruency becoming fully sex typed achieve gender socialization 17 Gender schema theory builds on the frameworks of both cognitive development social learning theory to formulate an explanation that is specific to gender socialization rather than to socialization as a more general process 18 Schema cognitive structure network of associations that helps to organize an individual s perception of the world 19 Gender schema cognitive structure that enables us to sort characteristics behaviors into masculine feminine categories then created various other associations with those categories 20 Androcentrism the belief that masculinity what men do in our culture is superior to femininity what women do 21 Gender polarization describes the way in which behaviors attitudes that are viewed as appropriate for men are seen as inappropriate for women vice versa 22 Enculturation how culture comes to reside inside individuals 23 Psychoanalytic theory the importance of women s status as mothers uses principles from Freud others in the psychoanalytic tradition to explain the ways in which gender becomes deeply embedded in the psychic structure of our personalities 24 Psychoanalytic identification the way in which a child modifies her own sense of self in order to incorporate some ability attribute or power she sees in others usually a parent around them 25 Ego boundaries describes the sense of personal psychological division between ourselves the world around us 26 Primary socialization the initial process of learning the ways of a society or group that occurs in infancy childhood is transmitted through the primary groups to which we belong 27 Primary groups characterized by intimate enduring unspecialized relationships among small groups who generally spend a great deal of time together 28 One child policy a government mandated system in China that began in 1979 that declares couples are limited to having only one child per family 29 Hegemonic masculinity any activity or behavior that has the potential to be seen as violating gender norms in some way 30 Secondary groups a concept that comes from R W Connell s exploration of how our dominant ideas about what it means to be a man influence the behaviors of actual men in any given society there is no one male role but rather a variety of masculinities that interact with each other in hierarchical contested ways 31 Secondary groups generally larger more temporary more impersonal more specialized than primary groups tend to be more specialized in that they focus on one or two primary goals rather than on the unspecialized set of goals 32 Secondary socialization the learning process that takes place each time we join one of these new secondary groups 33 Androgenization adopting some of the qualities of the opposite gender 34 Language symmetry a way in which the strcture vocabulary of a language reflects helps to re create the social inequalities of the culture in which it exists 35 Cumulative disadvantage inequalities that persist between women men over the whole course of their lives become intensified in old age 36 Suttee a Hindu practice of ritual self immolation setting oneself on fire 37 Roleless role when there are few expectations rules about exactly what widows should do or how they should behave


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