UNT SOCI 4250 - Ch-5_Sexuality (18 pages)

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Ch-5_Sexuality



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Ch-5_Sexuality

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Pages:
18
School:
University of North Texas
Course:
Soci 4250 - Gender and Society
Gender and Society Documents
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Questioning Gender A Sociological Exploration 2e by Robyn Ryle 2015 SAGE Publications HOW DOES GENDER MATTER FOR WHO WE WANT AND DESIRE Chapter Five The Gender of Sexuality Sociologists examine social significance of sexual categories such as gay and straight Sex is any act defined as sexual thus potentially much broader than just intercourse Sexual identity Sexual desire A combination of objective physical responses and subjective psychological or emotional responses to some internal or external stimulus Does Sexuality Have a Gender John Stoltenberg imaged a world Scholars argue that having sex is one of the ways in which we create the idea that there is such a thing as sex categories and gender We create the idea of gender in part through our expectations about what it means to be sexually as a women or a man Sex is used to create an accountable performance of gender Questioning Gender A Sociological Exploration 2e by Robyn Ryle 2015 SAGE Publications Men and Masculinity What do we make about men s sexuality The first is that real men are heterosexual They have a greater authority in society They show their Masculinity through gendered norms This aspect of men s sexuality is evidence of the strong connection in contemporary society between sexuality and gender as well as evidence of Masculinity and Sexuality Compulsive heterosexuality is the way in which heterosexuality becomes It explains why institutions serve to ensure male authority over physical emotional and economic access For men compulsive heterosexuality is more about men maintaining access to their power as men For women it may be about men maintaining their power over women Men are seen as sexual meaning they have a sense of that allows them to act in their bodies rather than being acted upon Men and Masculinity WWII Military training encouraged physical violence independence risk taking dominance and competition During WWII the Japanese Imperial Army enslaved women to service the sexual needs of the male soldiers comfort women In the U S much of popular culture focuses on adolescent boys obsession with sex Impotency implies that a man is literally without power not able to respond sexually as a man to any and every situation without assistance is seen as unmanly by men as well as women Femininity and Sexuality For women sexuality reveals a very different set of lessons compared to those related to men Romance tourism describes the ways in which many women as sex tourists are looking to be swept away by men in other locations Heteronormativity is the way in which heterosexuality is viewed as the normal natural way of being e g Prom King and Queen Questioning Gender A Sociological Exploration 2e by Robyn Ryle 2015 SAGE Publications Femininity and Sexuality Karin Martin s research revealed that girls often see sex as happening to them rather than something they actively desired or pursued Many experienced ideal love with their boyfriend expressed as a mix of submission and adoration Sexual object Women often confront a sexual double standard How is this double standard expressed Sexual Scripts Sexual scripts answer the question what exactly are we supposed to do sexually speaking Sexual scripts are the learned guidelines for sexual expression that provide individuals with a sense of appropriate sexual behaviors and sexual desires for that particular culture Women as passive men as active in U S culture Questioning Gender A Sociological Exploration 2e by Robyn Ryle 2015 SAGE Publications The egg portrayed as passive sperm as Sexual Scripts Cultural variation in sexual definitions Some Christian traditions see flesh as sinful Muslim tradition Sexual desire can help to serve God s purpose through procreation provides a preview of delights secured for men in Paradise and can foster intellectual effort if properly controlled Some feminists argue that the idea of passive feminine sexuality is an attempt to control women s power in society Questioning Gender A Sociological Exploration 2e by Robyn Ryle 2015 SAGE Publications Sex and Society Sexuality is more than just internal or biological aspects of ourselves it is also a key element of social structures and institutions Social status and power are important components of sexual behavior in many cultures E g Status and power of women s virginity Women s sexuality is often subject to social control while men s sexuality is less restricted Heterosexuality As heterosexuality is seen as given normal homosexuality has been long been viewed as needing to be explained However studying up in sociology is an effort to study those at the top of a given power structure Thus dominance of heterosexuality also needs to be explained Questioning Gender A Sociological Exploration 2e by Robyn Ryle 2015 SAGE Publications Heterosexuality Definitions of heterosexuality and homosexuality were created in 19th century The two terms were popularized by sexologist Richard Krafft Ebing He wrote about homosexuality as a personality disorder in 1886 Sexual categories focused on men s behavior Prior to this one sex model was dominant Sexuality in Cross Cultural Perspective Cross cultural research on same sex behavior This evidence shows that the relationship between sex category gender and sexuality is culturally defined and varies Ethnocentrism Bisexuality Bisexuality is an even more recent concept Freud believed that all humans are potentially bisexual Bisexuals are stigmatized by both heterosexuals and homosexuals but bisexuals refer to the others as monosexuals Amber Ault identified four techniques of neutralization through which lesbian women express their hostility toward bisexual women suppression incorporation marginalization and deligitmation Questioning Gender A Sociological Exploration 2e by Robyn Ryle 2015 SAGE Publications Heterosexism and Heteronormativity When did you know you were straight This question is rarely asked Rather question is more commonly When did you know you were gay The privilege of not being called upon to explain your sexual desires and behaviors is part of heteronormativity Hetero privilege Institutions norms and values in Questioning Gender A Sociological Exploration 2e by Robyn Ryle 2015 SAGE Publications Heterosexism and Heteronormativity Researchers have documented how some schools control sexuality and enforce heterosexuality on their students Hegemonic curriculum is the set of practices in these institutions that both legitimize the dominant culture and


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