UNT SOCI 4250 - Ch_08_Marriage_class (44 pages)

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Ch_08_Marriage_class



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Ch_08_Marriage_class

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Pages:
44
School:
University of North Texas
Course:
Soci 4250 - Gender and Society
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Questioning Gender A Sociological Exploration 2e by Robyn Ryle 2015 SAGE Publications HOW DOES GENDER IMPACT THE PEOPLE WE LIVE OUR LIVES WITH Chapter Eight The Meaning of Marriage and Family Gender is deeply influenced by the social institutions in our society One of the institution that greatly impacts gender is the institution of marriage and family What is Marriage Q What is your definition of Marriage A marriage is a legally recognized union between two people The union is assumed to be permanent may be dissolved by separation or divorce A Brief History of Marriage Historically love and marriage were separate o Marriage was linked to political power could lead to war e g Cleopatra and Marc Antony Women seen as representing their fathers interests Marriage and children permit alliances to be forged Marriage was the historical equivalent of the peace treaty non aggression pact or trade agreement o Marriage as exchange of women among nations What is Marriage Marriage differs among cultures It has changed historically in our society Shared Features of Marriage Despite cultural and historical variation the following characteristics seem to be shared among all marriages 1 The establishment of rights and obligations connected to gender sexuality relationships with kin and in laws and legitimacy of children 2 The establishment of specific roles within the wider community and society 3 The orderly transfer of wealth and property from one generation to the next 4 The assignment of the responsibility for caring for and socializing children to the spouses or their relatives Marriage Theories Marriage has evolved but why Competing explanations Protection theory of marriage Exploitation theory of marriage Cooperation theory of marriage Marriage in American Society Marriage has long been the foundation on which American families are constructed Paul Amato calls this the some see marriage as in decline while others portray it as dynamic changing and resilient Between 1980 and 2000 the view of marriage as a lifelong relationship received increased support Yet more than 40 of new marriages are projected to end in divorce The Decline of Marriage And Rise of New Families Marriage And Divorce Rates By Country 2010 Source Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Paris France Forms of Marriage Monogamy The only legal form of marriage in the U S Polygamy The preferred marital arrangement worldwide Polygyny Polyandry The current debate about gay marriage illustrates the difficulty in defining marriage Marriage is often used to define adulthood and shapes how people think about gender Demographics of Marriage Demographics are a way to describe the basic population characteristics of a group Sex ratio is usually expressed as the number of males to females in a given society Marriage squeeze The marriage gradient and marriage squeeze can have significant impacts on a society i e migration Ex African American women in the U S Endogamy The tendency sometimes enforced by norms or rules to marry only others within the same social group Structural Functionalism Theory When structural functionalists study the family they look at three aspects 1 Structural functionalism treats society as if it were a living organism like a person animal or tree Structural Functionalism Theory Critiques of Structural Functionalism Theory How do we know which family functions are vital Looks at the family abstractly and views the family in terms of functions and roles It is not always clear what function a particular structure serves It has conservative bias against change Conflict Theory Conflict theory holds that life involves discord and competition Sources of Conflict in Families Society as divided rather than cooperative unit Marriages and families are composed of individuals with different personalities ideas values tastes and goals Sources of Power Conflict Theory Critiques of Conflict Theory Conflict theory derives from politics and economics in which self interest egotism and competition are dominant elements Conflict theorists do not often talk about the power of love or bonding yet the presence of love and bonding may distinguish the family from all other groups in society Feminist Perspectives Feminists critically examine the ways in which family experience is shaped by gender Argue that gender and family are concepts created by society Feminists have an action orientation alongside their analytical one as they strive to raise society s level of awareness regarding the oppression of women Feminist Perspectives Critique of Feminist Perspectives The feminist perspective is not a unified theory rather it represents thinking across the feminist movement Some family scholars who conceptualize family life and work as a calling have taken issue with feminists focus on power and economics as a description of family Symbolic Interaction Theory Symbolic interaction theory looks at how people interact with one another What is Interaction We interpret or attach meanings to interactions situations roles relationships and other individuals whenever we encounter them In marital and family relationships our interactions are partly structured by social roles Symbolic Interaction Theory Critiques of Symbolic Interaction Theory The theory tends to minimize the role of power in relationships Family systems theory It sees the family as a structure of related subsystems with each subsystem carrying out certain functions It is made up of two earlier theories It is a link between Sociology and Family Therapy Systems have boundaries and it is important to maintain boundaries When the boundaries become blurred it results in a dysfunctional family Interactions are important for a healthy family Family systems theory Family systems therapists and researchers believe 1 interactions must be studied in the context of the family system 2 the family has a structure only visible in its interactions 3 the family is a purposeful system that seeks homeostasis 4 despite resistance to change each family system is transformed over time Demographics of Marriage Diaspora refers to the worldwide scattering of a nationality or ethnic group Hung Cam Thai s research of Vietnamese emigrants Double marriage squeeze Within Vietnam there are more women due to high male mortality and war and because of this there are more men relative to women outside Vietnam The marriage gradient was 2estill very Questioning Gender A Sociological Exploration by Robyn


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