UNT SOCI 4250 - Ch_07_GenderIdentity-class (20 pages)

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Ch_07_GenderIdentity-class



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Ch_07_GenderIdentity-class

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Pages:
20
School:
University of North Texas
Course:
Soci 4250 - Gender and Society
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Questioning Gender A Sociological Exploration 2e by Robyn Ryle 2015 SAGE Publications HOW DOES GENDER MATTER FOR HOW WE THINK ABOUT OUR BODIES Chapter Seven A Brief History of Bodies Mind body dualism A belief in a split between the physical body and the nonmaterial entity we call mind where the mind is seen as superior in many ways to the inferior body o The mind is seen as o Body is seen as Cultural views of women s connection to the body result from women s primary responsibility for caring for babies Body image Involves the perception and evaluation of one s own bodily appearance o Body as source of identity Questioning Gender A Sociological Exploration 2e by Robyn Ryle 2015 SAGE Publications The Beauty Myth Many feminists argue that the body is used to maintain a power imbalance through ideals of beauty Beauty standards define women as objects and downplay women s skills capabilities etc Among the Tiv of Nigeria beauty is achieved among both women and men through scarification The Kayan tradition of wearing a brass coil around their neck is associated with beauty and their culture Our society promotes perfection in our faces and our bodies Is beauty myth upholding gender inequality One way beauty myth contributes to male dominance is by channeling much of women s energies toward the pursuit of beauty Media and images of beauty displayed in popular culture are part of the reason women are becoming increasingly less satisfied with their bodies Failure to achieve the goals leads to Body Image The survey found that 60 percent of adult women have negative thoughts about themselves weekly compared to 36 percent of men 78 percent of teen girls are plagued with this kind of selfcriticism TODAY AOL body image survey The Beauty Myth Naomi Wolf The Beauty Myth The belief in a quality called beauty that is real and universal and that women due to biological sexual and evolutionary factors should want to embody while men should desire the women who embody that ideal Wolf does not accept that The Beauty Myth is in fact real and universal rather is portrayed this way For Wolf the power of the Beauty Myth is found in the way it makes gendered beauty standards seem natural and normal Hysteria and Eating Disorders Hysteria was a disease that began to be diagnosed among primarily upper class white women in the U S and Europe in the late nineteenth century Symptoms included muscle aches weakness depression Often these were women who were branching out into men s domains such as higher education Psychology of the uterus The term is still used today hysterical or hissy fit Modern day interpretation is more that they were suffering from their social and psychological Questioning Gender A Sociological Exploration 2e by Robyn Ryle 2015 SAGE conditions rather that physiological conditions Publications Hysteria and Eating Disorders Feminist scholar Bordo draws historical linkages between hysteria and eating disorders Both reveal Different conditions observed at different time periods Female disorder symptoms that could be regarded as a text and analyze as a textulaity Bordo sees anorexia partly as a method of resisting these dominant ideals and as a response to cultural pressures of the time Research shows that women seem unable to correctly perceive their own bodies Body Image Distortion Syndrome Body dysmorphic disorder Excessive obsession with body image Cosmetic Surgery The stigma of surgery an extreme alteration seems to be fading over time Most common surgeries liposuction and breast augmentation blepharoplasty eyelid surgery Double eyelid surgery for Asian American women Often cited as an illustration of the dominance of white features as standard beauty Many who receive it argue that it s to lessen the stigma associated with Asian features Cosmetic surgeons often reinforce the negative associations with certain characteristics Questioning Gender A Sociological Exploration 2e by Robyn Ryle 2015 SAGE Publications In Support of Beauty Some scholars have criticized Naomi Wolf s arguments against The Beauty Myth They argue that beauty is about more than women s subordination Pursuit of beauty as a source of cohesion and bonding among women Creative and subversive nature of many beauty practices do not always reinforce dominant norms Questioning Gender A Sociological Exploration 2e by Robyn Ryle 2015 SAGE Publications Men and Beauty Male bodies are also used as markers of gender status and group membership Height is seen as especially important for men giving taller men an advantage in hiring and gaining more trust of others equated with power Doing Gender perspective would see this height difference as a way for heterosexual couples to Height is a historically specific marker of gender power for men developed from middle class Media Image for Men and Women Naked Bodies We are accustomed to looking at women s bodies as sexual objects Historically men s bodies were seen as the ideal representation of beauty The construction of hegemonic masculinity and No Sissy Stuff Men shouldn t do anything that hints at femininity because it suggests vulnerability Often media reinforces this idea Be a Sturdy Oak Reinforces the idea that men shouldn t show vulnerability or weakness Advertising Questioning Gender A Sociological Exploration 2e by Robyn Ryle 2015 SAGE Publications stereotypical advertising Men and Risky Health Behavior The definition of masculinity as invincible or invulnerable has Men s rates of mortality are higher than women s Men are more likely to be injured due to their work and due to risk taking behavior such as violence Some of the most basic masculine activities for the typical man carry a great potential of danger and bodily harm i e football Smoking Drinking and driving Seat belts Risky sexual act Real men exude an aura of manly daring and Questioning Gender A Sociological Exploration 2e by Robyn Ryle 2015 SAGE aggression Publications Constructions of Masculinity and their Influence on Men s WellBeing Men die 7 years younger Heart disease Cancer Most infectious diseases Heart attacks The stronger sex Risky behavior Ignoring depression Male Bodies Race can also be a factor African American men have a shorter life expectancy than their white counterparts Bodies of black men are commonly portrayed as dangerous to others They have also been viewed as more durable or superiorly human athletic prowess Men are less likely to admit they need help and less commonly seek help when facing health


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