UNT PSYC 4520 - Ch.6 Notes (5 pages)

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Ch.6 Notes



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Ch.6 Notes

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5
School:
University of North Texas
Course:
Psyc 4520 - Personality
Personality Documents
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PSYC 3620 Personality Ch 6 Notes The Neo Freudian Theories Anxiety Coping Strategies o o Freud identified three types o Reality anxiety objective anxiety Response to a perceived threat in the real world You are aware of the source of your emotional reaction o Neurotic anxiety Experienced when unacceptable id impulses are dangerously close to breaking into consciousness Type of anxiety that leads the ego to use defense mechanisms o Moral anxiety Brought about by superego in response to id impulses that violate the superego s strict moral code Generally experienced as guilt Distinction between o Defense mechanisms which are unconscious processes o Coping strategies which are conscious efforts Coping with Anxiety o o Psychologists refer to these efforts to cope with anxiety in the face of a perceived threat as coping strategies o Women report using more coping strategies than men When psychologists refer to a person s general approach to dealing with stress as his or her coping style Types of Coping Strategies o Repression sensitization o A people who typically respond to threatening situations by avoiding them o o o These repressors try not to think about the situations thereby succeed in avoiding the anxiety as much or as long as possible Sensitizers o Z people typically deal with a stressful situation by finding out as much as possible as soon as possible thereby put themselves in a position to take the most effective action Three basic ways to deal with anxiety o Problem focused strategies Intended to take care of the problem thereby overcoming the anxiety o Emotion focused strategies Designed to reduce the emotional distress that accompanies the problem o Avoidance strategies Deals with emotions by pushing the anxiety provoking situation out of awareness Women tend to use emotion focused strategies more than men whereas men are more likely than women to take steps to solve problems directly How Effective are Coping Strategies o o o Active strategies are more effective in helping people cope with stressors than avoidance strategies Avoidance strategies rarely are successful in reducing anxiety or helping people overcome tragedy o Long term consequences from extensive reliance on avoidance strategies Vulnerability to stress related health problems When the situation can t be changed working on one s emotional reaction to the experience is probably the more effective approach Coping Flexibility o o Researchers refer to the ability to effectively utilize different coping strategies as coping flexibility People who readily adjust their coping strategies to fit the realities of a given situation are likely to deal with life s problems more effectively than those who do not Psychoanalytic Concepts Aggression o o o Freud proposed that aggression is the result of frustrated libido o When our pleasure seeking impulse is blocked we experience a primordial reaction to attack the obstacle o Since our egos keep us from killing everyone we often displace our aggression Freud later said that we all have an instinctual desire to destroy ourselves but because a fully functioning ego does not allow self destruction the instinct is turned outward toward others Frustration aggression hypothesis o States that aggression is always a consequence of frustration that the occurrence of aggressive behavior always presupposed the existence of frustration contrariwise that the existence of frustration always leads to some form of aggression One cause of aggression frustration One response to frustration aggression o Proposed that aggression ceases when we experience catharsis Release of tension Until the frustration builds tension levels up again we should expect no further outbreaks o Proposed that frustration sometimes leads to indirect expressions of aggression Can be expressed by Displacing the aggression to a new target Attacking the source of our frustration in an indirect manner Sublimation channeling our energy into something productive Frustration Aggression o o Frustration is more intense the closer people are to their goal Belief that frustration is but one of many negative emotions that increase aggression o Explains why frustration does not always lead to aggression o Clarifies why certain thoughts increase or decrease the likelihood of acting aggressively Displacing Aggression o o We don t always attack the source of our frustration directly we sometimes direct our frustration induced anger toward someone who does not deserve it Shock Experiment o Frustrated participants given the opportunity to shock a stranger also delivered more shocks than the nonfrustrated participants These people displaced their aggressive tendencies onto the innocent bystander o When the reaction is often way out of proportion to the relatively small offense psychologists refer to this as triggered displaced aggression Catharsis Aggression o Essay Punching Bag Experiment o The least angry least aggressive participants were those who calmly sat alone without punching anything o Acting aggressively increases the tendency to aggress Acting aggressively may lead to disinhibition Presence of aggressive cues Seeing something we associate with violence ex gun May tap into other memories emotions related to aggression Because cathartic release of tension feels good aggressive acts may be reinforced Catharsis may increase aggression Attachment Style Adult Relationships o Neo Freudians maintain that how we relate to significant others as adults is a reflection of the relationship we had with our parents Objects Relations Theory Attachment Theory o o Object Relations Theorists o Place great emphasis on early childhood experiences o Postulate that the child develops an unconscious representation of significant objects in his or her environment o The way the child internalizes the parent s image serves as a basis for how the child thinks of others when he or she enters into future relationships Attachment Theory o Examined emotional bonds between infants their caregivers These were referred to as attachment relationships because they meet our human need to form attachments with a supportive protective other o o Particular interest in reactions of infants who are physically separated from their primary caregiver Three types of parent child relationships o Secure infant mother pairs mothers are attentive responsive to their child infants understand that mother is responsive accessible even if she is not physically present happy


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