UNT PSYC 4520 - Ch. 13 Notes (5 pages)

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Ch. 13 Notes



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Ch. 13 Notes

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5
School:
University of North Texas
Course:
Psyc 4520 - Personality
Personality Documents
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PSYC 4520 Personality Ch 13 Notes The Behavioral Social Learning Approach Objectives o o o o o o o Behaviorism Basic Principles of Conditioning Social Learning Theory Social Cognitive Theory Application Conditioning Principles Self Efficacy in Psychotherapy Assessment Behavior Observation Methods Strengths and Criticisms of the Behavioral Social Learning Approach Behaviorism o John B Watson Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It o New movement called behaviorism o If psychology were to be a science psychologists must stop examining mental states only the observable was reasonable subject matter for a science o We should study overt behavior That which can be observed predicted eventually controlled by scientists Ex emotions thoughts expectancies values reasoning insight the unconscious o Ivan Pavlos o Animals could be made to respond to stimuli in their environment by pairing these stimuli with events that already elicited a response Classical conditioning o Other psychologists o Animals were less likely to repeat behaviors that met with negative consequences than were animals given no punishment Operant conditioning o Personality is the end product of our habit systems o B F Skinner o Skipping the party because you felt anxious behavior does not change because you feel anxious decision to skip the party the anxiety are both conditioned reactions to the situation Radical behaviorism o If you rush into a burning building it is not because you are heroic but because you have been conditioned to do so Basic Principles of Conditioning o Conditioning is divided into 2 categories o Classical conditioning Pavlovian o Operant conditioning Instrumental o Classical Conditioning o Classical conditioning 1 Existing stimulus response S R association Ex dogs salivate when they see food o Food stimulus o Salivation response Food is unconditioned stimulus UCS salivation is unconditioned response UCR 2 Pair UCS with new conditioned stimulus CS Ex whenever presenting food to dogs sounding a bell Salivation conditioned response CR Other situation If you were to pair a green light in addition to bell tone x2 UCRs o The process of building one conditioned S R association on another second order conditioning Limitations For a new S R association to persist the UCS CS must be paired occasionally or otherwise reinforced o Ex when Pavlov presented bell ton only dogs salivated less less Sometimes you have to reintroduce the food Gradual disappearance of the conditioned S R association is called o Extinction o Operant Conditioning Law of effect Behaviors are more likely to be repeated if they lead to satisfying consequences less likely to be repeated if they lead to unsatisfying consequences o Ex Thorndike s cats repeated the required behaviors because their actions led to the satisfying consequences of escape food Operant conditioning begins with behaviors the organism emits spontaneously Operant conditioning concerns the effect certain kinds of consequences have on the frequency of behavior o Consequence that increases the frequency of a behavior that precedes it Reinforcement o Consequences that decreases the behavior Punishment o Two reinforcement strategies Positive reinforcement Behavior increases because it is followed by the presentation of a reward Negative reinforcement Removal or lessening of an unpleasant stimulus when the behavior occurs o Two methods for decreasing undesired behaviors Most effective to cease reinforcement let behavior extinguish Punishment Frequency of a behavior is reduced when it is followed by an aversive stimulus or the removal of a positive stimulus Limitations on Punishment o Doesn t teach appropriate behaviors only decrease frequency of undesired ones o To be effective it must be delivered immediately consistently o Negative side effects Aversive feelings that accompany Create negative emotions Shaping Successive approximations of the desire behavior are reinforced o Ex rewarding patient for getting out of bed sitting among the other patients rewarding patient when he is in art therapy room o Really useful when teaching complex behaviors Ex children learning the alphabet Generalization Discrimination Generalization o Pigeons trained to peck at large red circles to receive food will also peck at small orange circles although not as frequent Stimulus generalization Discrimination o Pigeon is not rewarded for pecking at orange circles it will soon learn to discriminate between rewarded nonrewarded stimuli Social Learning Theory o Behavior environment behavior interactions o Not only does the environment influence our behavior but that behavior then determines the kind of environment we find ourselves in which can influence behavior Environment influences behavior behavior determines the kind of environment we find ourselves in influences behavior Ex the way people treat you is partly the result of how you act o John Rotter o causes of human behaviors are far more complex than those of lower animals Multifinality o Behavior potential Likelihood that a given behavior will occur in a particular situation Two variables need to be considered Expectancy o Ex before joining a soccer game trying to figure out probability one will have a good time o Generalized expectancies Beliefs we hold about how often our actions ty Reinforcement value o E


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