UGA BIOL 1108 - BehavioralEcology (4 pages)

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BehavioralEcology



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BehavioralEcology

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Pages:
4
School:
University of Georgia
Course:
Biol 1108 - Principles Bio Ii
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BIOL 1108 Edition 1nd Lecture 21 Outline of Last Lecture I Learning Objectives II In The News III Ecology IV Distribution and Abundance V Biomes VI Climate vs Weather Outline of Current Lecture I Learning Objectives II Definitions III Animal Signs and Communication IV Linking Experience and Behavior V Survival and Reproduction VI Inclusive Fitness and Altruism VII Dispersal Current Lecture I Learning Objectives Distinguish proximate and ultimate causation for behaviors Relate the 4 types of communication animals use to their environments Relate behaviors to survival and reproduction within organisms environments Describe how altruism could be selfish Consider ways dispersal affects survival and reproduction These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute II III Definitions Ecology from the Greek oikos home and logos to study Behavior an animal s responses to external stimuli Behavioral ecology the study of how animals respond to environmental stimuli abiotic and biotic o Evolved by natural selection including morphological and physiological adaptations that correlate to behavior Proximate causation factors how the behavior occurs including the stimulus mechanical responses development of the behavior o Ex Genes turning off and on Ultimate causation factors why the behavior evolved its functional significance to survival and or reproduction Animal Signs and Communication Signal stimulus from one animal to another Communication signal transmission and signal reception when the signal is received and is responded 4 types of animal communication o Chemical o Auditory o Visual o Tactile TOPHAT QUESTION Many moth species are active at night Which form of communication do they use to help move around ANSWER chemical TOPHAT QUESTION Which of the following is the best description of a lone wolf howling ANSWER a wolf behavior because there are no other wolves to receive the signal and respond IV V Linking Experience and Behavior Imprinting follow motherly figures identify parents o Contain critical periods in order to be able to learn skills o Ex Ducks following mother Spatial learning and cognitive maps wasps nests using visual cues o Ex Rat running in a maze Associative learning response associated with something o Ex Touching fire Cognition and problem solving using tools social learning not passed on genetically but the ability to learn them will o Ex Puzzles and riddles Survival and Reproduction Foraging behavior VI o More individuals in a population increase competition of resources causing them to travel farther Optimal foraging o Costs and benefits Ex Crows learned to drop shells to open them and eat More energy needed to fly higher Less time to drop shells Mating behavior and mate choice o Seeking o Attracting o Choosing o Competing for Sweaty t shirt experiment men shirts were placed in a bag to be smelled by females Women would rate the pheromones by pleasantness o Compare immune systems between men and women o Women not on oral contraceptives had normal hormonal cycles were attracted to men with different immunities to them Higher survival rate for offspring o Women on contraceptives alter hormonal cycles stimulates pregnancy were more attracted to men with similar immunities Like family they were attracted to men more likely to take care of offspring Number of eggs laid or offspring born when mating with preferred or notpreferred partner experiment chambers that allowed two different males with a female then she would choose a male to mate with However the other half of females were forced to mate with the not preferred constrained males o Those that mated with constrained males laid more eggs had more offspring in order to make up for quality of genetic pools to make up for the lower survival rate o Offspring survival is higher in those from the preferred males Inclusive Fitness and Altruism Inclusive fitness passing on own genes offspring and those of close relatives with whom you share genes Altruism a behavior that benefits another individual s reproductive success while potentially harming the reproductive success of the altruist Hamilton s Rule rB C o r coefficient of relatedness fraction of genes shared o B benefit to recipient extra offspring o C cost to altruist fewer offspring Kin selection natural selection favoring altruism that increases the reproductive success of relatives Reciprocal altruism altruism when not related but could be returned in the future TOPHAT QUESTION Which sex of prairie dogs should give an alarm call ANSWER Individuals are more likely to live closer to home therefore females live closer to home and are more likely to send an alarm call to protect offspring through altruism VII Dispersal Movement from one location to another often for reproductive purposes Affects survival and reproduction Breeding dispersal between breeding attempt movement Emigration movement from one breeding site to another o Ex Bluebirds nest from spring to the summer 75 of them stayed at their primary nesting location or close between different seasons Most birds that had failing nests but had no predation remained in the similar location while those that had predation traveled twice as far Different males would travel further in order to find new mates but those that remained with the same mate traveled less Nasal Dispersal movement from where born to first breeding attempt o Ex Bluebirds Young birds move farther than adults to find a mate outside of the family Most individuals stayed about a kilometer from where they were born


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