Mizzou WGST 3570 - Making Wives and Mothers (7 pages)

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Making Wives and Mothers



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Making Wives and Mothers

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Pages:
7
School:
University of Missouri
Course:
Wgst 3570 - European Women in the 19th Century
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Making Wives and Mothers 09 30 2014 In order for women to become wives and mothers they must be trained to do so Mary Wollstencraft In order to be good mothers they must be educated Education must go towards strengthening women s minds Nothing natural about 19th century men and women It s all o Science o Politics o Economics o Women in Household Political 09 30 2014 19th Century women Family o Social basis for political order o Nuclear family Integral part for capitalistic economy Provided unpaid labor Kept system afloat o Middle class family values influenced Autonomy Domesticity Decline in infant mortality Large families Children will make own living Marriage o Economic and social building block or family Men and women enter into society as adults Waited until you were established Men waited until he was financially stable to marry Middle class women had no choice o Problematic if you didn t marry o Remained subordinate daughters o Never gain adult status o Marriage is idealized Companionate marriage Do it out of love for successful marriage Not just a business partnership but bonding of souls This was why you couldn t have souls Once bonding made cannot be turned o Marriage legitimated men Women dependent on them o Characteristics of marriage Age of marriage went up Men waited until financially secure Men looked for younger women Women married in early to mid twenties Once married it became a training ground Family judged on contributions to middle class Not all women married Needed to have children Children made women women Larger the family meant very successful o Average of children went from 4 to 6 Women and Motherhood Women and pregnancy o Were pregnant most of marriage o Some died in childbirth o Wanted to control reproduction o Women claimed they loved their children Saw them twice a day Not into attachment parenting Raising children is now seen as a burden Women as mothers o Supposed to breastfeed Had to stop around youngest child due to health reasons o Had to oversee spiritual growth of children Started in infancy o Women were assumed to have maternal instincts 1815 maternal instincts could not be trusted without education o Discipline Mothers are supposed to give tough love Men can discipline but mother is responsible for moral character of child Used guilt Withhold parental love Men responsible for corporal punishment and women do mental punishment If household goes bad if child ends up crazy it is blamed on the mother Women and Education Women could not be in the household without education 1830 s decided that women needed to be schooled outside of school Education outside of home o From 0 5 girls and boys dressed the same treated the same o By age of 5 boys got out of petticoats and into briefs o Toys differentiated boys from girls Girls had dolls boys had balls Both had pets and kept gardens Boys had dogs girls had rabbits and cats Boys were taught to ride girls had to swim Boys more tolerant of dirt o Cleanliness Determined class status Girls meant to be intolerant of dirt boys tolerate it o Education Boys either had a tutor or went to boarding school Private schools opened doors for boys At this point mother s job is done Twice as many daughters lived at home than sons Working class boys were kept at home for industry but girls were sent to vocational school for sewing If girls education went past age 8 or 9 governess was hired to teach her o Accounting o Learn of functioning of government o Foreign language Translation suitable form of activity Education lasted until 13 then they were kicked out to schools away from home In France girls were sent to protestant schools to instill religious teachings in girls Girls could be pulled out at age 16 Middle class girls went into puberty two years before working class girls Puberty o Girls had to be careful when it came to menstruation Avoid exercise Increase female literacy o Literacy rate of women is 98 o Higher in Protestant countries than Catholic In Catholics everything is in Latin and mediator b w you and God is priest but in Protestant mediator is Bible Women and Politics o Women are getting political rights soley on reproductive system 1800 1830 women are removed from economic production women have to be taught and learn how to manage domestic space through mother governess then school new landscape of domesticity new social relations for women outside bonds of household women have to form strong female networks Identify women as women Female networks worked in some instances to challenge primacy of husbands and family and social order Economic Exclusion 09 30 2014


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