ISU PHY 102 - Stars (4 pages)

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Lecture number:
Lecture Note
Illinois State University
Phy 102 - Atoms to Galaxies
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PHY 102 1st Edition Outline of Last Lecture I Einstein a Equation for spacetime II Shape of the Universe III Einstein GTR and the Universe a Einstein s equation of general relativity IV Friedmann s Universe a Total Energy b Einstein s Equations c E mc2 V VI Atomic Emission Spectra Hubble s Relationship a Distance of nebulas b Hubble s law for Galaxies VII Abbe Georges Lamaitre Outline of Current Lecture i Individual Star Organization ii Aging of Stars iii Variable Stars iv Clusters These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute v vi Nebulae SNR Neutron Stars Black Holes Current Lecture I Individual Stars are organized a By mass b By lifetime i Stars range in efficiency in use of gas can have the same amount of gas but use it in a different time period c Age II When stars age a They can literally explode b Some will become white dwarves neutron stars and others c Which one they will become is dependent on the mass III Binary Singular Stars a Both are equally as common b Two stars that orbit around each other instead of one being the center of a galaxy c Some people believe that our sun has a companion star that passes every 30 million years linked to extinction patterns IV Variable Stars a Large magellanic cloud b From the southern hemisphere the milky way looks like two chunks As the period of variability gets longer the brightness increases luminosity The difference between absolute brightness and apparent brightness has to do with distance Period of variability V Clusters two types a Open loose clusters of stars leftover from formation of clouds dust b Globular closely grouped stars gravitational pull is extremely strong i 13 8 billion years old cluster stars bright turnoff blue VI VII red ii Younger stars will be on the main sequenc iii Older the stars are the more likely they are to peel off of the curve c We know how much fuel they have and how fast they use it so we can trace it back to age the stars Nebulae a Emission sword of Orion contain the Great Nebula b Dark horsehead nebula more perfect vacuum than we can create c Reflection seven sisters dusty gas that surrounds each nebula d Planetar the star casts off a shell of material i Swell so large that the outer layer is cast off and the white dwarf dense core in left SNRs Neuton Stars and Black Holds a SNR with Neutron stars i When they explode they do it from the inside out ii Gravity in the core will increase until the Helium nucleus crashes together to create carbon oxygen which collapses into Nitrogen Once Iron is converted into the next element the next step takes energy and uses the energy from the star The core collapses on itself the protons are crushed into electrons and become neutrons b Black Hole Model i No known force within the nucleus that can stop the collapse ii Closer you get to a black hole escape velocity is SO great c Nuclear Fusion i The sun is essentially a controlled nuclear blast ii 90 of the original material was Hydrogen by mass iii Proton neutron will crash into another pair and create Helium and release antimatter iv Light form the sun results from nuclear collisions in the sun s core v Can take a million years to start its journey

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