UA BSC 109 - Reproduction and Birth (5 pages)

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Reproduction and Birth



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Reproduction and Birth

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Discusses the stages of birth and different types of contraception


Lecture number:
23
Pages:
5
Type:
Lecture Note
School:
University of Alabama
Course:
Bsc 109 - Intro Biology Non Maj II
Edition:
1
Unformatted text preview:

BSC 109 1st Edition Lecture 23 Outline of Last Lecture I Producing concentrated urine conserving water II Urination depends on a reflex III Kidneys maintain homeostasis IV Disorders of the urinary system Chapter 16 Reproduction System I II III IV V VI VII VIII The male reproductive system delivers sperm Accessory glands help sperm survive Sperm production requires several cell divisions Testosterone affects male reproductive capacity The female reproductive system produces eggs and supports pregnancy Mammary glands nourish the infant Menstrual cycle consists of ovarian and uterine cycles Human sexual response intercourse and fertilization Outline of Current Lecture IX Fertilization one sperm penetrates the egg X Twins may be fraternal or identical XI Development cleavage morphogenesis differentiation and growth XII Pre embryonic development the first two weeks XIII Embryonic development weeks three to eight XIV The placenta and umbilical cord XV The embryo develops rapidly XVI Birth and the early postnatal period XVII The transition from fetus to newborn XVIII Lactation produces milk to nourish the newborn XIX From birth to adulthood XX Death is the final transition XXI Birth control methods controlling fertility Current Lecture XXII Fertilization one sperm penetrates the egg A Ejaculate may contain several hundred million sperm B Sperm may be viable for up to 5 days within the female reproductive tract XXIII Twins may be fraternal or identical These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute A Fraternal twins 1 Ovulation of more than one oocyte each of which is fertilized by different sperm 2 No more similar than two siblings 3 May be different genders B Identical twins 1 One oocyte fertilized 2 Split into two pre embryos before 16 cell stage 3 Same gender look alike XXIV Development cleavage morphogenesis differentiation and growth A Cleavage 1 Series of cell divisions without cell growth 2 Produces a ball of identical cells 3 Occurs up to about day four after fertilization 4 Occurs entirely within the oviduct B Morphogenesis changes in shape and form C Differentiation individual cells take on specialized forms and functions D Growth 1 Begins significantly at implantation 2 Single cell at fertilization to trillion cells at birth 3 Growth in number of cells and size of cells results in increase in overall size XXV Pre embryonic development the first two weeks A Conceptus travels through oviduct B Growth differentiation and morphogenesis begin C Ectopic pregnancy occurs when blastocyst implants in an oviduct prior to reaching the uterus XXVI Embryonic development weeks three to eight A All organs and organ systems established by end of embryonic period B Embryonic development beginning of week three until end of week eight XXVII The placenta and umbilical cord A Umbilical cord two way life line connects placenta to embryo s circulation B Functions 1 Filters nutrients waste and antibodies for the fetus without mixing mother and fetal circulations 2 Site of nutrient and gas exchange between embryo and mother 3 Some toxins or viruses may pass through alcohol cocaine HIV XXVIII The embryo develops rapidly A Day 15 1 Embryonic disk elongates along one axis 2 Primitive streak appears in embryonic disk B Days 19 24 1 Neural tube develops becomes brain and spinal cord 2 Pharyngeal arches develop 3 Somites segments bone muscle skin C End of week four 1 Heart is beginning to develop 2 Eye development begins 3 Limb buds appear D Gender development begins at six weeks 1 Testes secrete two hormones a Testosterone stimulates the further development of male genitalia b Anti mullerian hormone suppresses development of female external and internal genitalia 2 Absence of Y chromosome results in female development E Months three to four 1 Eight weeks marks the transition from embryonic to fetal development 2 Organ development 3 Beginnings of organ function kidneys liver spleen 4 Cartilaginous skeleton replaced with bone 5 Bone marrow begins producing red blood cells 6 Face develops 7 Rapid growth F Months five and six 1 Fetal movement begins 2 Fetal heartbeat can be heard with stethoscope 3 Fetus responds to external sounds 4 Lungs produce surfactant significant for survival outside of mother 5 Survival possible outside mother G End of six months marks end of second trimester H Months seven through nine 1 Third trimester 2 Rapid growth and maturation 3 Fetal activity increases 4 Fetus prepares for life on the outside lungs and digestive tract ready to function XXIX Birth and the early postnatal period A Labor initiated by hormones secreted by maturing fetus B Stages of labor 1 Dilation of cervix 2 Expulsion of fetus delivery 3 Afterbirth expulsion of placenta XXX The transition from fetus to newborn A Changes in cardiovascular system 1 Umbilical circulation cut off 2 Ductus venosus regresses to connective tissue 3 Foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus close in days weeks cause blood to go through the lungs instead of bypassing them 4 All blood from the digestive tract goes to liver XXXI Lactation produces milk to nourish the newborn A Endocrine controle of lactiation 1 Estrogen and progesterone cause breast enlargement 2 Prolactin stimulates milk production 3 Oxytocin stimulates smooth muscle contractions that cause ejection of milk B Colostrum watery milk produced the first few days after birth rich in antibodies XXXII From birth to adulthood A Neonatal period first month helpless period movement by reflex rather than by conscious control B Infancy 2 to 15 months 1 Rapid development and maturation of organ systems 2 Rapid brain growth particularly cerebral cortex C Childhood 16 months to 12 years continued development and growth D Adolescence 15 to 20 years growth spurt sexual maturation XXXIII Death is the final transition A Failure of critical organ systems leads to rapid death 1 Brain 2 Respiratory system 3 Cardiovascular system B Death is a process defining the moment of death is a challenge C Legal and medical criteria of death 1 Irreversible cessation of circulatory and respiratory functions 2 Irreversible cessation of all functions of the entire brain including the brain stem XXXIV Birth control methods controlling fertility A Abstinence not having intercourse does not always prevent pregnancy B Surgical sterilization 1 Vasectomy in males cut and tie off both ductus deferens 2 Tubal


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