UNT BIOL 3510 - Cellular Structure II (2 pages)

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Cellular Structure II

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Cellular Structure II


Covering Lecture 22 of BIOL 3510 from roles of actin networks to muscle cells

Lecture number:
Lecture Note
University of North Texas
Biol 3510 - Cell Biology
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BIOL 3510 1st Edition Lecture 22 Outline of Last Lecture I Three Main Cytoskeletal Filaments II Roles of Microtubules in a Cell III Microtubule Growth and Disassembly IV Motor Proteins Outline of Current Lecture I Roles of Actin Networks II Microfilament Growth and Disassembly III Actin in Action IV Resting and Contracting Muscle Cells Current Lecture Roles of Actin Networks A B C D Stable microvilli Stable contractile bundles Temporary protrusions needed for cell movement Temporary cytokinetic contractile ring Microfilaments actin filaments are composed of globular actin proteins aligned into two twisted protofilaments Like MTs microfilaments have a distinct polarity Actin is more likely to be added to the plus end Microfilament MF Growth and Disassembly Actin is an ATPase Actin ATP is added to both ends faster growth at plus end After incorporation to a MF ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP causing a conformation change that destabilizes the MF Treadmilling and dynamic instability are dependent on nucleotide hydrolysis Some microfilaments are nucleated from actin nucleating proteins near the plasma membrane Microfilament behavior is modified by actin binding proteins Actin in action the three steps of cell crawling are actin dependent These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute 1 Actin polymerization at the leading edge of the cell results in the protrusion of lemellipodia and filopodia Branched actin networks in lemellipodia are nucleated by ARP complexes Growth of unbranched microfilaments in filopodia and other structures is promoted by formins Formins promote the addition of actin monomers 2 Integrins bind to the extracellular proteins and internal microfilaments Integrins transmembrane proteins that interact with the crawling cell s environment connected to actin filaments 3 Internal contraction of the cell is mediated by myosin II an actin dependent motor protein All actin dependant motor proteins belong to the myosin family plus end directed Two main types myosin I and myosin II Bind and hydrolyze ATP Different myosin I proteins bind to different cell components Actin in action How does a cell know what type of microfilament network to form Cell signals converge on a family of Rho GTP binding proteins GTPases Rho promotes contractile bundles Rac promotes lamellipodia Cdc42 promotes filapodia Actin in action Mucle Cell Contraction Myosin II filaments are critical for muscle cell contraction Movement of myosin II along opposite oriented actin filaments creates a contractile force Muscle cells contain myofibrils which are chains of repeating sarcomere units Muscle contraction occurs when the myosin and actin filaments slide past each other Transverse tubules convey the excitatory signal action potential from an activating neuron to the sarcoplasmic reticulum In response to the action potential Ca2 is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum Resting muscle cell tropomyosin covers MFs and prevents myosin from binding Contracting muscle cell Ca2 released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum bind to the troponin complex changing its conformation This alters the tropomyosin actin interaction allowing myosin to bind and initiating a contraction

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