TAMU SOCI 304 - Terrorism and White collar crime (4 pages)

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Terrorism and White collar crime

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Terrorism and White collar crime


Terrorism and white collar crime

Lecture number:
Lecture Note
Texas A&M University
Soci 304 - Criminology
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Socio 304 1nd Edition Lecture 16 Outline of Last Lecture I Video Outline of Current Lecture II Gang violence III Cycle of violence IV Family violence Current Lecture Gang and Family Violence 1 Gang Violence a Thrasher 1927 The Gang A Study of 1 313 Gangs in Chicago b Youth gangs i a gang is an interstitial group originally formed spontaneously and then integrated through conflict ii Note among illegal activity is not mentioned b Miller 1970 defined a gang more in terms of its organizational characteristics and dynamics c Finn Aage Esbensen 2000 i To classify a group as a youth gang you need several elements 1 involvement in illegal activity IS a central element b History of gangs in USA i 1920s 1940s turf land property ii 1950s teenage gangs iii 1960s drugs b Organizational features of urban gangs i Vertical clear line of authority clear leader ii Horizontal multiple small sets 20 30 people of gangs no elaborate line of command 1 Bloods Crips both LA gangs are horizontally organized b Shakur s Monster 1993 i Autobiographical account of becoming a gang member for Crips ii Eleven years old courted in jumped in 1 Had to shoot someone to be in gang ii Label monster iii O G status three stages These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute iv Emphasis on reputation 1 Had to keep up tough image ii Who was his family as he became further involved in gang life 1 Relationship with mother declined 2 Gangmembers homeboys were more his family b Gangs in Pattillo s Sweet Mothers and Gangbangers Managing Crime in a Black Middle Class Neighborhood 1998 i Social organization and gangs 1 Young people in Groveland Chicago introduced to gang pathway but also to organization 2 There s peace in the community even though gangs exist there 3 Groveland stability and dense networks facilitate social control but do not prevent criminal behavior b NCVS i 1993 9 ii 2003 6 iii Not a huge number but it is a national estimate b Gangs Gender and Violence Jody Miller 2009 i Gender organization of gangs 1 Mixed gender gangs with male and female members most common 2 All female gangs affiliated with male gangs auxiliary gang 3 Independent female gangs least common 4 Gang involved youth both male and female are more likely than youth not in gangs to participate in delinquency facilitative effect 2 Cycle of Violence Kathy Widom a Hypothesis when abused children become abusers and when victims of violence become violent offenders i Cycle of violence may refer to abuse as a child leading to abuse as a parent many do not later engage as violence ii Or childs abuse can lead to delinquent behaviors violent acts b Conflict Tactics Scale CTS how often did you experience violence as a child Scale of 0 25 can predict c Social Learning Perspective if you were abused you learned to engage in violence or tolerate it d Physical Abuse when an individual knowingly and willfully inflicted unnecessary severe corporal punishment or unnecessary physical suffering upon a child or children ex striking punching kicking biting throwing or burning e Sexual Abuse involves a variety of charged ranging from relatively non specific ones such as assault and battery with intent to gratify sexual desires to more specific and detailed charges of fondling and touching in an obscene manner f Neglect refers to cases in which the court found a child to have no proper parent care or guardianship i To be destitute or homeless or to be living in a physically dangerous environment ii Neglect reflects a judgment that the behavior represents a serious omission by the parents b Widom s Study i Design of study is notable 1 Prospective study not retrospective looks into present therefore the study worked with children rather than working with adults and asking if they were abused in the past 2 Separate abused and neglected groups 3 Matched cohort design abused grouped with control group of same sex age race economic status that were not abused 4 Had a large study sample ii Findings 1 Through multivariate analyses found that those who had experienced physical abuse and neglected showed higherlevels of violence in adulthood 2 Those who had been sexually abused did not show elevated violence in adulthood 3 Support for cycle of violence limited to physical abuse and neglect not sexual abuse 2 Family Violence a Johnson 1995 Two types of Intimate Partner Violence i Patriarchal terrorism man takes on role of authority meant to dominate someone else can involve cutting someone off from economic resources threats to partner or family isolation of partner etc male is perpetrator ii Common couple violence a form of marital violence used for conflict resolution male or female as perpetrator 1 See a gender different in type or seriousness of injuries sustained men typically inflict worse injuries on females b Theoretical Perspectives i Social Disorganization Theory 1 Being in a disorganized neighborhood disorganized household 2 Social Learning you learn to engage in violence because it was done to you 3 Social Control 4 Neutralization denial of responsibility 5 Self Control b Types of Violence i Co occurring partner violence and child abuse 1 When adults in household have been victimized risk of child victimization increases 2 Exposure to violence direct and indirect victimization a Direct it happens to you personally b Indirect you see it happening to someone else has really harmful consequences on kids i Can witness violence in neighborhoods etc not just at home b Family as Institution Gelles i Time of Risk we spend a lot of time interacting with our families 1 Routine activities perspective Payne and Gainey 2009 2 Theres more opportunity for conflict to occur ii Range of Activitires and Interests people have different interests opportunity for conflict iii Intensity of Invovlements conflict can brew and become more intense iv Age and Sex Differences v Ascribed Roles vi Privacy only the people in the family usually know what goes on at home in isolation most important

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