TAMU ANSC 107 - Environmental Physiology (5 pages)

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Environmental Physiology

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Environmental Physiology


Lecture number:
Lecture Note
Texas A&M University
Ansc 107 - General Animal Science
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ANSC 107 1nd Edition Lecture 19 Outline of Previous Lecture I Estrous synchronization a Ram effect b Flehman II Methods a CIDR b MGA III AI a Advantages b Disadvantages IV Extenders Outline of Current Lecture I Environmental physiology II Factors affecting critical temperature III Effects of light on animal performance a Ventilation b Animal waste management Current Lecture 1 Adaptation long term changes in animals in response to their environment that are genetically based 2 Acclimatization adaptation of an animals to environmental factors over a period of days or week increase in red cells 3 Conduction exchange of heat from warm too cold between objects that are touching 4 Convection flow of heat from warm too cold through air or water 5 Critical temperature the temperature below lower critical temperature which the animal must make physiological adjustments to maintain its body temperature Upper critical temperature is that temperature at which the animal makes adjustments to try and cool its body a Ex sweat glands and shivering These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute b Reptiles can t do this but mammals can 6 Effective temperature total heating or cooling power of the environment Ambient temperature is affected by wind humidity and solar radiation a Affected by wind humidity and solar power i Shade and windbreak b Feedlots always have a wind break 7 Homoeothermic animals that maintain a relatively constant body temperature regardless of external temperatures Normal temperatures for farm animals are a Horse 100 b Cattle 101 5 c Sheep 102 d Goats 102 e Swine 102 5 f Chickens 107 8 Radiation exchange of heat between two objects that are not touching a Can results in the loss or gain of heat 9 Thermo neutral zone Range of temperature where heat loss and heat production are about the same Animals is in comfort zone no physiological response to temperature a Comfort zone b Heat loss heat production 10 Factor affecting critical temperature a Hair coat b Subcutaneous fat c Nutritional level d Is the animal wet or dry 11 Relationship of maintenance energy energy consumed and energy for gain with TNZ thermo neutral zone a Maintenance how much to eat to maintain friend easy Keeper 12 Hormonal response to temperature stress a Thyroxin produced by the thyroid gland thyroxin secretion increases during cold stress and decreases during heat stress b Corticoids produced by the adrenal gland corticoid secretion increased during the cold sorters and decreased during heat stress 13 Methods of reducing stress during hot periods include a Shade cheapest and simplest methods of reducing heat stress due to solar radiation i Properly shade should be 10 12 inch high placed on a hill if possible the top should be white or shinny and the underside dull and dark can be made of a variety of things b Evaporative cooling i One of the most effective ways to control heat stress particularly in swine ii Sprinklers foggers and wallows are most effective Evaporative coolers are used in many poultry houses iii Must be in west Texas to be extremely affected iv Decrease milk production if feed weren t shaded c Refrigeration refrigerated air conditioning is prohibitive in terms of cost i Same are pulling air through underground ducts into a barn which may cool the air down into the mid 60s ii Expensive d Zone cooling blowing air onto the head has been effective in sows in farrowing housing who have shown increased milk production e Feed and water needs during stress i Water intake during heavy stress increases 50 100 ii Feed intake is depressed during heat stress To combat this and keep production levels high poultry producers often top dress rations with B vitamins to increase appetite trace minerals and high energy feed like animal fat 1 B vitamin will stimulate feed intake f Wind Chill Wind breaks and shelters wind breaks and shelters are used north of a line from southern Colorado to Ohio to reduce the effects of wind chill i the wind breaks are generally built on the north side of the pen to block the cold northerly wind 14 Kansas state research a Fogged increased ADG daily intake feed gain 15 Ration adjustments during temperature stress a Increase in energy required to maintain body temperature result in decreased in feed efficiency b Energy density of the diet can be increased during periods of temperature stress c Heat increments of the diet can be decreased during heat stress by reducing the fiber of the diet while the heat increment of the diet can be increased by feeding more fiber during cold stress d During heat stress laying hens eat less feed i Producers will increase protein in the diet e During cold stress greater portion of the energy is being used for maintenance less energy is available for gain therefore less protein is needed for gain and the protein in the diet can be reduced 16 Effects of light on animal performance a Day length is associated with reproductive performance in a number of species i Control light in hen house ii ewes being to cycle when the days get shorter iii mares cycle when days get longer iv day length is also associated with hair growth and shedding in cattle and horses 17 Ventilation a Producers who are raising livestock in enclosed confinement building must be particularly conscious of proper air movement ventilation b Moisture must be removed from the air along with ammonia c Proper air exchange is also important for temperature control 18 Animal waste management one of the major problems facing livestock producers today is management of waste a Environmental regulation are forcing producers to be more concerned with managing waste property and rightly so b Confinement swine facilities often have lagoon systems that utilized biological decomposition of waste that is handled in a liquid form c Manure utilization d Methane production e Fiber refeeding i Manure can be an excellent source of income for feedlots that manage cattle and lambs ii Kothmann lamb feedlot in menard Texas was program that utilizes manure iii The manure is washed through screens and the fiber is left

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