OSU ECE 5463 - Actuators (9 pages)

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Actuators



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Actuators

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Pages:
9
School:
Ohio State University
Course:
Ece 5463 - Introduction to Real Time Robotics Systems

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Actuators Take class notes Actuator types There are four kinds of actuators commonly used in robotic systems Electrical DC motors operated by electricity Hydraulic operated by fluid Pneumatic operated by air Electric stepped motor We will focus on the DC motor since it is the most commonly used Advantages and disadvantages 1 1 Precision Electrical and hydraulic are very precise if controlled properly Pneumatics work with a compliant fluid which makes precise control in continuous path difficult Stepper motors are very precise but can lose steps if acceleration deceleration is not controlled it is used as an open loop device Advantages and disadvantages 2 2 Power Hydraulic drives generate significant power in a compact volume Stepper motors have much less torque size than DC motor Rare earth magnets in DC motor generate strong magnetic field Advantages and disadvantages 3 3 Cost High precision electrohydraulic valves are very expensive more than electric amplifiers Stepper motors for small torques they are rather costeffective Pneumatic very inexpensive 4 Summary DC motors are most commonly used even in heavy duty applications Hydraulic systems are used for high power requirement Principle of the Electric DC motors 1 Robots use mostly DC permanent magnet motor DC permanent magnet motor characteristics Work on the principle that a wire carrying a current in a magnetic field experiences a force where is the magnetic flux which is due to a permanent magnet B the magnetic flux density Webers m2 North il B f i r f Axis of rotation South Principle of the Electric DC motors 2 Motion of the armature due to the generated torque is opposed by the inertia of the armature rotor the voltage generated by the moving coil in the magnetic field and the load on the motor shaft due to friction damping or work done Voltage generated by the moving coil in the magnetic field is called back electromotive force back emf Back emf Speed of rotation Length of wire Velocity Model of motor R L V



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