ISU PSY 110 - Exam 4 Study Guide (10 pages)

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Exam 4 Study Guide



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PSY 110 1st Edition Exam 4 Study Guide Lectures 17 21 Lecture 17 November 3 What is personality Characteristic patterns of behaving thinking and feeling What is psychoanalysis A theory and therapy that focuses on unconscious processes What are Freud s three levels of consciousness Conscious What we are aware of at any given moment thoughts feelings sensations or memories Preconscious Memories we are not aware of but can easily bring to mind Unconscious Repressed memories instincts wishes desires have never been conscious What are the id ego and superego Id Contains life and death instincts and operates according to the pleasure principle Ego The logical rational part of personality and operates according to the reality principle Superego Moral system of personality and consists of conscience and ego ideal What is a defense mechanism It is used by the ego to maintain self esteem and defend against anxiety created by conflict between the id and superego What are Freud s psychosexual stages of development 1 2 3 4 5 Oral Stage From birth to 1 year conflict is weaning Anal Stage From 1 to 3 years conflict is toilet training Phallic Stage From 3 to 5 or 6 years conflict is Oedipus Electra Complex Latency Stage From 5 or 6 years to puberty period of sexual calm Genital Stage From puberty and beyond revival of sexual interests Who are the Neo Freudians Carl Jung Alfred Adler and Karen Horney What was Carl Jung known for What are archetypes What is the collective unconscious Carl Jung was known for the concept of archetypes and the collective unconscious Archetypes are inherited tendencies to respond to universal human situations The collective unconscious is the most inaccessible layer of the unconscious shared by all people and it contains the universal experiences of humankind as well as archetypes What was Alfred Adler s theory He believed in individual psychology which is the theory that the drive to overcome feelings of inferiority motivates most human behavior What is Karen Horney known for She believed that Freud s theory was sexist and that women s difficulties arise from the failure to live up to idealized versions of themselves What is humanistic psychology The idea that people have a natural tendency toward growth and realization of their fullest potential What is Maslow s theory He proposed a hierarchy of needs that motivates behavior to reach the highest need selfactualization What are self actualizers They seek to devote their lives to greater good What is Roger s theory What are conditions of worth In efforts to gain positive regard we deny the true self Conditions of worth are conditions on which positive regard depends and they force us to live according to someone else s values What is a trait Personal characteristic that is stable across situations used to describe or explain personality What is Allport s theory There are two kinds of triats Cardinal Traits So pervasive that almost every act can be traced to their influence Central Traits Traits which we would mention in writing a careful letter of recommendation What is Cattell s theory There are two kinds of traits Surface Traits The observable qualities of personality Source Traits Underlie surface traits and cause certain surface traits to cluster together What is Eysenck s theory He proposed 3 personality factors PEN model Psychoticism An individual s link to reality Extraversion A dimension ranging from outgoing to shy Neuroticism Emotional stability ranging from stable to anxious and irritable What are the components of the 5 factor model Openness Open to new experiences curious and broadminded versus having narrow interests and preferring the familiar Conscientiousness Reliable orderly and industrious versus undependable and lazy Extraversion Outgoing prefer to be around other people versus shy prefer to be alone Agreeableness Easygoing and friendly versus unfriendly and cold Neuroticism Pessimistic and irritable versus optimistic take things in stride Lecture 18 November 5 What is the difference between individualistic cultures and collectivist cultures Individualistic cultures place an emphasis on independence and individual achievement while collectivist cultures place an emphasis on social connectedness and define the self in terms of group membership What is the social cognitive theory Personality is defined as a collection of learned behaviors acquired through social interactions What is Bandura s reciprocal determinism model Internal environmental and behavioral variables interact to influence personality What is self efficacy A person s perception of his or her ability to perform competently whatever is attempted What is a locus of control The cognitive factor that explains how people account for what happens in their lives What is a behavioral assessment Psychologists count and record the frequency of particular behaviors What is a structured interview The content of the questions and the manner in which they are asked are carefully planned ahead of time What is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory MMPI It is used to screen for and diagnose psychiatric problems and disorders What is the California Personality Inventory CPI It was developed to assess personality in normal individuals What is the Myers Briggs Type Indicator MBTI It measures normal individual differences on 4 personality dimensions What are projective tests Consist of inkblots drawings of ambiguous human situations or incomplete sentences What is the Rorschach Inkblot Test Test taker is asked to describe 10 inkblots responses can be used to diagnose disorders What is the Thematic Apperception Test TAT Consists of one blank card and 19 cards showing vague or ambiguous black and white drawings of human figures Lecture 19 November 10 What is a psychological disorder Mental processes and or behavioral patterns that cause emotional distress and or substantial impairment in functioning What is the DSM 5 It contains the descriptions of about 300 specific psychological disorders and lists the criteria the must be met in order to make a particular diagnosis What is the biological perspective The idea that abnormal behavior arises from a physical cause What is the biopsychosocial perspective The idea that disorders result from a combination of biological psychological and social causes What is the psychodynamic perspective The idea that disorders stem from childhood and unresolved unconscious conflicts What is the learning perspective


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