ECU RELI 1000 - Exam 3 Study Guide (10 pages)

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Exam 3 Study Guide

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Exam 3 Study Guide


reli 1000 exam 3 sg

Study Guide
East Carolina University
Reli 1000 - Introduction to Religious Studies
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RELI 1000 Exam 3 Study Guide Religion Society Society Society A group of humans animals or plants of a single species that is collectively related in an interdependent way Social institutions government family education legal systems religion economic health political cultural Emile Durkheim on Society French Sociologist born 1858 Works The Division of Labor 1893 The Rules of Sociological Method 1895 Suicide 1897 The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life 1912 Investigated how the society functions especially what binds it together is noted for arguing that God is the society Goals of society Social solidarity order is fundamental to society Each social institutions functions to promote social order Society acts like an organism with various parts social institutions each which must function to promote social harmony Religion Society Religion emerged from the needs to promote harmony in the community Morality taboos and other rules are the reason form religion Religion is a social expression that enhances solidarity Ritual creates heightened emotion collective effervescence that is reified to control humans The relationships between humans and the supernatural world is similar to that between individuals and the community Religious Agents Authority Religious authority It s rooted in the sacred the divine the invisible reality It can be a double edged sword example May sanction good as well as evil Religious agents Prophets sages saints priests shape influence social behavior Jesus Muhammad Moses Charisma Charisma a unique compelling authority possessed by a person his her teachings Max Weber Most religious leaders are charismatic and they often enlists disciples Zoroaster Zoroastrianism Jesus Christianity Buddha Buddhism Muhammad Islam Moses Judaism Routinization of Charisma Organization of a religion to survive the death of its leader Muhammad and Islam Jesus and Christianity Buddha and Buddhism Many voluntary groups especially cults don t survive this crisis People s Temple in Jonestown Guyana led by Rev James Jones 1978 Father Divine Peace Mission in New York led by Father Divine 1965 Routinization Process a Standardization Cannonization of the doctrine b Discipline Rules e g Sharia Halakha etc c Mode of Worship Liturgy d Organization of community Christian Cannonization Process as routinization A creed apologetic writings were produced The Apostles Creed Religious communities Religious communities falls into categories Natural Religious Groups Born marry into Maintained through blood kinship race nation Attention is paid to rites of passage ancestor veneration Often used for political reasons to protect identity Sometimes associated with an element of coercion E g Indigenous religions Judaism etc Secret Society Voluntary Religious Groups Secret Society Often arise out of dissatisfaction within the natural religion May be voluntary or practice coercion Voluntary groups Breaks from natural group Don t restrict marriage within the group Often proselytizing they seeks converts through evangelization Kinship is not a central factor e g Islam Christianity Buddhism Examples of Religious Communities Church People called by God Christianity Sangha assembly Buddhism Umma Surrenders to Allah Islam Religion Protest Change Stress in religious groups often leads to discord protest and calls for renewal reform and change Tension arise out of scriptural interpretations laxity of members towards the doctrine religion and worship May also be fueled by the discovery that original teachings norms of belief or practices are neglected and hypocrisy Leaders claim a new independent revelation or teaching that challenges the original message e g discovery of new scripture Schism in Christianity Issues in the Church in the West The Claims to Primacy by the Roman Bishop The Church in the West Roman Catholic Church was organized under bishops The Bishop of Rome was later elevated to Pope Eastern Orthodox church was excommunicated Eastern Orthodox Church remained organized under bishops Patriarchs Protestantism Emerged during the 15th century reformation period Criticized the Roman Catholic teachings and practices e g Fundraising activities the selling of the relics Indulgences Remission of the punishment for sin by the clergy in return for services or payment Purchase of freedom from purgatory The church taught that one could earn spiritual merit by donating to the church Relationship between the church and state Church in Constantinople became aligned almost identified with the state under Constatine The Church in Rome was not Doctrinal differences often cultural and attitude E g Eastern church insisted in continuing the Greek tradition Arguments about the nature of Jesus was he fully God or human Eastern church observed Easter according to the Jewish calendarafter Passover Western Christians observed resurrection day on the Sunday after Passover Use of icons during worship Major Agents of Change Martin Luther 1483 1546 A monk priest a Professor of Biblical studies at the University of Wittenberg He taught Salvation by the grace of God alone through repentance and faith based on Jesus teachings Salvation to sinners in spite of their sin Critiqued the Catholic teachings on indulgences and the idea of the purgatory In 1517 he posted 99 theses on the door of the church citing errors in the Catholic teachings He was excommunicated on June 15 1520 by the Papal Bull a decree He moved to Germany with supporters Attempts to reconcile the church with him failed Ulrich Zwingli A Swiss priest who rejected Catholic practices not mentioned in the Bible E g Abstaining from meat during lent veneration of relics and saints religious pilgrimages celibacy for monks and priests masses for the dead Like Luther he taught that the Lord s supper is celebrated as a memorial of Jesus sacrifice John Calvin Shared reform principles Salvation by faith alone Exclusive authority of the Bible The priesthood of believers He taught Predestination i e God has already decided the destiny of each person hence actions cannot bring about salvation By grace some are saved and others are predestined not to be saved 3 signs of salvation are 1 An upright lifestyle 2 Profession of faith 3 Participation in the sacrament John Wesley United Methodist Church John Wesley 1703 1791 founder of Methodism He organized Methodist societies within the church of England in order to renew the spiritual life of the people Some members withdrew from the

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