UNT CJUS 3310 - Ch. 9 Notes (8 pages)

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Ch. 9 Notes



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Ch. 9 Notes

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University of North Texas
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Cjus 3310 - Org/consensual Crime
Org/consensual Crime Documents
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CJUS 3310 Organized and Consensual Crime Russian Organized Crime Criminals from the former Soviet Union FSU have proven capable of engaging in a virtual smorgasbord of crimes in the United States some pedestrian such as drug trafficking others requiring the technical skills often possessed by FSU immigrants In this chapter we will look at organized crime in the FSU and Russian organized crime ROC in the U S WHO ARE THE RUSSIAN ORGANIZED CRIMINALS Russian encompasses any ethnic group such as Armenian Chechen Estonian Georgian Jewish Latvian Lithuanian Tatar Ukrainian from the territory of the former Soviet Union and maybe Albanians Russian OC identifies those whose origins are the territory of the former Soviet Union ROOTS OF RUSSIAN ORGANIZED CRIME RUSSIA 1547 1991 Czarist Russia 1547 1917 Russian Army losses 1905 Japan and Germany WWI angered the populace and led to rioting in the cities 1917 overthrow and execution of Czar Nicholas and family Communists formed USSR 1922 1953 Brutal Stalinist regime Economic stagnation 1991 perestroika restructuring breakup of Soviet Union Citizens distrusted all these governments PERESTROIKA RESTRUCTURING The Post 1987 economic liberalization Awoke the entrepreneurial spirit of capitalism Criminal organizations seized wealth and power General populace suffered hyperinflation unemployment and a drop in standard of living The economy shrank despite great natural resource wealth a well educated population and a diverse but dilapidated industrial base THE SHADOW ECONOMY The state mutated into a new entity that incorporates criminal political and economic sources of power Under communism managers of state owned manufacturing diverted goods for sale outside of government control a shadow economy Economic reforms gave managers in collusion with local officials the opportunity to purchase their firms Criminals provided the capital for the purchases THE EVOLUTION OF RUSSIAN ORGANIZED CRIME The legal system failed to keep pace with the changes Lacked property rights law Lacked contract law Lacked business dispute resolution mechanisms Criminal organizations filled the vacuum Private protection services Shadow justice Do it yourself or hire criminals CRIMINALS STRUGGLE TO CLAIM STATE ENTERPRISES AND PROPERTY Informal agreements allotted territories and functional boundaries Criminals became deeply entrenched in the economy Criminal experience with corruption and an underground economy thrived in the nascent capitalist environment A new form of non state based authoritarianism Citizens live in fear of non state criminal actors ORAGNIZED CRIME ACTIVITIES Protection dispute resolution debt collection Criminals have access to capital legitimate businesses do not and must go to the mobsters for it Extortionate interest rates Criminals have market knowledge and skills Trafficking in synthetic drugs or protecting the trafficking networks Nuclear trafficking human trafficking labor exploitation Women trafficked in Europe Asia Abuse Murder THREE TYPES OF RUSSIAN OC VETERANS AND SPORTSMEN Minimal connection to the criminal subculture Poorly paid badly housed demoralized military personnel Arms trafficking Private security forces A roof to protect a businessman from extortion Sports clubs and fitness centers racketeer gangs Powerful gangs emerged offering protection for a fee Conspicuous jewelry haircuts leather jackets gangster chic Credentialed THREE TYPES OF RUSSIAN OC ETHNIC BASED GROUPS Clan legacy from FSU Kinship friendship unwritten rules norms practices Governed by elder s council and or senior members Associations with transnational OC groups Control territory for trafficking routes Linked to local crime groups and drug mafias Ex Soviet states don t arrest privately support them ETHNIC BASED GROUP CHECHENS Largely Muslim legendary warriors hostile to Moscow Falsely accused of Nazi collaboration during WWII Strong family loyalty sense of personal honor Adat requires vengeance to uphold family honor Strict hierarchical clan structure 1991 Declared independence violent conflict with Russian military ensued Credentialing Reputation for fearlessness and violence CHECHENS CONT Criminals conduct spectacular scams The capital Grozny became a hub for unsanctioned flights hauling contraband and outlaws Middle East Turkey central Asia Narcotics duty free goods bandits in hiding Mafiosi rob cargo trains traveling through Chechen Crimes arms trafficking currency and financial document counterfeiting restraint of trade Contract crimes in U S murder extortion fraud The only group that does not respect vory territories THREE TYPES OF RUSSIAN OC VORY Professional underworld dates from end of 17th century Gangs of itinerant petty criminals formed criminal hierarchy vory v zakone thieves with a code of honor Thrived among prison inmates 20th century political dissidents sent to prison camps Transformed vory code Forbade adherence to conventional lifestyle Forbade involvement in politics or collaboration with state except prison authorities VORY V ZAKONE Stalin s Gulags filled up with political dissidents WWII developed regional corporate type structure vory split into 2 factions later reunited patriots supported efforts to defeat Nazis Traditionalists were aloof Code abandon family have no wife or children loyalty to world of crime never insult or attack a vory have no job learn vory code and language VORY TATTOOS Tattoos express a coded vory language decipherable only by vory Serve as an identity card Credentialing Tattoo shows status in organization hierarchy Tattoo shows criminal specialty VORY DURING AND AFTER COMMUNISM Managers of state owned enterprises became unofficial entrepreneurs To meet quotas they established informal networks for supplies from other state owned enterprises Gap between government controlled rice and market price created opportunity for crime Managers sold best goods to vory at premium prices vory extorted money from managers When Russia privatize the corrupt managers and their vory partners purchased the state enterprises VYACHESLAV IVANKOV YAPONCHIK LITTLE JAP High ranking vor v zakonye with Solntsevskaya Bratva Solntevo Brotherhood of Moscow 1991 Released early from from prison Went on campaign of extortion torturing victims ordered killings including journalists and police officers Vor leadership banished him to U S with 1 5 million in a suitcase Violent leading Russian crime boss in U S 1995 arrested for Hobbs Act extortion of immigrant


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