UNT CJUS 3310 - Ch. 8 Notes (6 pages)

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Ch. 8 Notes



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Ch. 8 Notes

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6
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University of North Texas
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Cjus 3310 - Org/consensual Crime
Org/consensual Crime Documents
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CJUS 3310 Organized and Consensual Crime Asian Organized Crime Japan s most popular television comic and host Shinsuke Shimada retired from the entertainment industry after admitting to extensive ties to the yakuza His ties to organized crime were disclosed when a series of emails he sent to a yakuza boss were leaked to the media by another senior yakuza figure who had been the subject of derogatory comments made by the TV host The scandal disclosed yakuza domination of the entertainment industry Adelstein 2011 This chapter examines the most prominent Asian organized crime groups Chinese and Japanese CHINESE ORGANIZED CRIME Asian is an imprecise term that can include many diverse groups In the U S 34 distinct ethnic groups make up Asian communities Secret societies have a long tradition in China some dating back to the beginning of the Common Era Criminal organizations in China are referred to as secret societies black gangs or black societies UNIQUE CULTURAL DYNAMICS OF CHINESE SOCIETY Born into a hierarchically organized society Chinese see selves bound in a web of mutual obligate bonds Part of a latent organization formed by guanxi Gianxi embraces many concepts such as connections networks and patron client relations Built on a series of dyadic relationships some natural others must be acquired cultivated and maintained Parallel of partito discussed in chapter 5 UNIQUE CULTURAL DYNAMICS OF CHINESE SOCIETY CONT Loyalty to family and friends is a moral imperative Qingqing parallels southern Italian famiglia Parental and filial obligations of reciprocity Resources are pooled Each member must contribute Family must provide each member with resources for living Pooling familial resources advances the business interests of overseas Chinese UNIQUE CULTURAL DYNAMICS OF CHINESE SOCIETY CONT In this setting law is marginalized to a position well below mediative mechanisms in the social order Like famiglia and partito guanxi and qingqing facilitate criminal organization Guanxi is global providing a dynamic for international business both legal and illegal Triads are a natural extension of these cultural attributes TRIADS Triad symbol Equilateral triangle representing heaven earth and man Members are assigned numbers based on their position Members are 49 Enforcers Red Poles are 426 A leader Hill Chief is 489 Numbers always start with 4 Ritualized dress and behavior Secret hand signs and passwords elaborate initiation includes recitation of 36 blood oaths each ends with death penalty for violation fee payment to sponsor TRIADS CONT Loose cartels of independent groups with similar structures and rituals Members choose their own criminal activities Do not pay leaders unless leaders participate As in American Mafia and outlaw biker clubs Triads have an associational hierarchy that does not exert vertical control over members criminal enterprises Leaders advance the influence of the organization for their own and the members benefit TRIADS CONT 1911 Qing Ch ing dynasty ended Dr Sun Yat sen leader of new Republic of China His successor General Chiang Kai shek imposed a military regime with help from the secret societies in particular the Green Gang Qing Bang 1949 Mao Zedong defeated Chiang s Nationalists Mao sought to obliterate Triads Triad members fled to Taiwan where they were tightly controlled by the Nationalist Party Kuomintang TYPICAL TRIAD STRUCTURE Leader is called Shan Chu deputy leader is Fu Shan Chu below is Incense Master Heung Chu and Vanguard Fin Fung Incense Master and Vanguard administer lodge rituals and vest initiate and order retribution Only mature lodges have these positions Members pay fee for services Ranks of officials Red Pole fighter White Paper Fan counselor Messenger liaison 1990s HK Triads invested in Western countries as a hedge against uncertainty when HK would revert to PRC in 1997 HONG KONG TRIADS UNITED BAMBOO United Bamboo strong ties to the Kuomintang Party Leader is wanted in Taiwan Served prison terms in U S for drug trafficking Lives in People s Republic of China PRC Attractive ally to PRC and to dealmakers and smugglers Extortion debt collection gambling prostitution trafficking in persons pirated movies construction bid rigging Coordinated efforts in various countries enable international drug trafficking arms trafficking alien smuggling and financial fraud crimes HONG KONG CRIMINAL ORGANIZATION BIG CIRCLE Big Circle origins in Communist China s Red Guards Mao s personal militia in Great Cultural Revolution Revolution canceled fled to HK Big Circle is not itself a Triad but major bosses belong to Society of Tranquil Happiness Triad Very active criminal organization Cells in Canada U S and Europe that are highly sophisticated in use of technology to thwart law enforcement Manufacture and distribution of counterfeit credit cards and other documents drug trafficking extortion prostitution gaming offenses PRC AND HK TRIADS AFTER 1997 When HK reverted to the PRC HK Triads were designated patriotic societies by the PRC in an effort to keep Taiwan based counterparts out fearing they would join forces with anti Beijing liberals This definitional change allowed HK Triads to establish guanxi with officials and state enterprises and gain access to business status and wealth It also helped them locate licit and illicit business opportunities on the mainland TRIAD BUSINESS Drug trafficking Triads expanded their operations during the Vietnam War Triads control prostitution in Singapore HK and Macau Macau based Triads are part of the gaming industry Triads run VIP rooms inside casinos Recruit rich businessmen and government officials from Southeast Asia Taiwan and China to gamble Provide one stop service to their clients such as transport escorts accommodation protection sex service and loans TONGS 1848 Chinese laborers recruited to come to U S to work in gold fields in California also railroads 1860s Chinatowns in Pacific Coast cities 1882 Chinese Exclusionary Act Refuge in Tongs business fraternal political groups also licensed illegal businesses nation wide alliance 1890 1930 Tong wars on East and West coasts Gambling in particular Pai Gow prostitution Mostly exploited their own communities ASIAN GANGS Many contemporary tongs are national particularly the Hip Sing On Leong and Tsung Tin Some tongs are connected to Chinatown gangs such as Ghost Shadows and Flying Dragons in NY Chicago Boston and San Francisco 1960s American born ABC and new immigrants Fresh Off


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