Mizzou WGST 3570 - Science and Sex (8 pages)

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Science and Sex



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Science and Sex

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Pages:
8
School:
University of Missouri
Course:
Wgst 3570 - European Women in the 19th Century
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History 3570 9 4 14 Outline One Sex Model and Two Sex Model One Sex 1500s 1700s Women as an Incomplete man Aristotle Galen Renaissance Anatomists Versalius and Da Vinci Transmutation Two Sex 1700 800 Anatomy The Female Male Skeleton Skull and Pelvis Reproduction Nervous System Consequences of Two Sex Model Political and Social Not subjective scientific facts 09 04 2014 Woman as Incomplete Man 09 04 2014 Da Vinci Studying men s bodies because women s bodies were incomplete bodies o Women s bodies had the same parts as men s bodies just put in different places o Women were mirror image of men Sexual organs were insides for men and men s were on the outside Versalius 1538 Vagina is Equivalent of the penis Transmutation Men were normal but women were abnormal Women could physically turn into men o Abrams woman was running got hot and penis fell out Women cannot become men no matter the weather Nature moves towards perfection so men cannot become women o what is already perfect cannot become imperfect Women have less control over their bodies and minds Sex can be changed Gender is not based in biology but determined in categories such as wet cold hot dry formed and unformed In terms of penis internal and external Visible and invisible One sex model For life to start there had to be heat For heat to occur there must be passion Goes from horizontal to verticle o Men vertical women horizontal Transmutation Men and women were different o Women were not men turned inside out Women s anatomy was not an imperfect version of men o Women were women because of their reproductive organs Men owe their organs to nature Women had ovaries men had testicles Men had penis women had vagina Two Sex Model 09 04 2014 Anatomy Albinus Male Skeleton 1734 No real description of female anatomy until 1850 1759 D Arconville Male and Female Skeleton woman has smaller head men has broader shoulders in relation to his hips women s hips were wider Women were shorter This became the norm for anatomy textbooks Somre Drew a depiction of female skeleton Received plenty of criticism for the drawing o Pelvis should be wider Scientific accuracy didn t matter Women and men s bones were different o Women had different texture than weight than male bones Women s figure Petite o Should not move fast or partake in physical activities Corsette was invented to accentuate women s figure o Detrimental to women s health Brings ribs into lungs Death Inflammation of lungs Miscarriages Coughs Difficulty breathing Weakness Skull Pelvis Noticed the difference between men and women s skulls and pelvises o Bones that were clearly the most different Has to deal with politics in 1800s o Liberal ideas starting to come in o Trying figure out what a democracy looks like o Question of intelligence Exclude people from understanding political stuff o Not made to understand it o Make people less intelligent Measure intelligence by skull size Female Skull o Much lower but cannot count for intelligence Shape of skull is of equal importance o Someone argued that brain shaped the skull o Intelligence is innate Not based on educational opportunities o Did this with other people Europeans Africans children Could make argument that racial differences was being born at the same time of gender differences o Differences that cannot be explained Women s brains were larger and heavier in proportion to women s bodies Women were smarter than men Women s larger and heavier skull meant that they were less developed not smarter Babies have heavier skulls o Analogies of women and children standard Women were childlike Needed to be protected more Women needed to be guided by husbands subservient Translated into language of science having scientific proof o Barkely s family skeleton drawing Justification of women s characteristics Reproduction No guess on how menstruation and reproductive system works Two theories o Ovism o Spermist Ovism o Person would be in ovary Spermist o Person would be in sperm Needed heat to make a baby o Women needed to be pleasured in order for a baby to made Becoming pregnant after being raped was scientifically impossible No relation of sexual pleasure to reproduction Used dogs as reproduction experiment o With syringe Proved that women were not needed for sexual feelings Eggs not related to female orgasm Women have no sexual feelings Nervous System Women s nervous system that determines their emotion was different Capable of pure love o Springs from reproduction Men have a more egotistical love o Self love Men thought women felt Consequences of Two Sex Model Political and Social Men should be in charge of marriage because of 09 04 2014


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