ISU SOA 223 - Exam 4 Study Guide (9 pages)

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Exam 4 Study Guide



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Exam 4 Study Guide

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Pages:
9
Type:
Study Guide
School:
Illinois State University
Course:
Soa 223 - Social Psychology
Edition:
1
Unformatted text preview:

SOA 223 1nd Edition Exam 4 Study Guide Lectures 19 23 Lecture 19 11 03 2014 Prosocial Behavior Voluntary behavior carried out to benefit another person Altruism Primary goal to help another even no cost to self Egoistic Helping Form of helping primary goal increase own welfare Different Forms of Helping Behavior Rescuing Donating Assisting Volunteering Giving social support Motives underlying helping Evolutionary factors o The selfish gene inclusive fitness o Kinship selection help genetic relatives o Biological stakes are high Social exchange factors ought factors social norms Empathy Reproductive Advantages in helping nonkin Reciprocal altruism cooperation in groups increases chances you will be helped in return survive Social exchange factors Rewards Costs Equity considerations Social norms Reciprocity norm Social responsibility norm Religious and ethical codes Empathy Ability to put yourself in shoes of another and experience what they re experiencing Empathy Altruism Hypothesis When we feel empathy for someone we will attempt to help purel for altruistic reasons Could help due to empathic concern 2 egoistic reasons social rewards experienced distress Difference between Egoistic Altruistic motives Easy to escape situation If egoistic motive helping should decline when escape from situation is easy If altruistic motive help given regardless of ease of escape Lecture 20 11 05 2014 Positive Negative Moods Good mood effect good mood increases helping behavior WHY Mood maintenance hypothesis happy thoughts seeing bright side increases selfattention Bad Moods Helping Guilt usually leads to an increase in helping due to balance or reciprocation Sadness can also lead to helping Negative state relief hypothesis people help others to alleviate their own sadness Association between negative moods helping is not as strong consistent as positive mood effect Grief depression are unlikely to lead to helping attention focused on self If we blame others for bad moods less likely to help Model of Bystander Intervention 5 step decision process 1 2 3 4 Noticing Interpreting Taking responsibility Deciding how to help 5 Providing help Many people witnessing an emergency can lead to Pluralistic ignorance Diffusion of responsibility think someone else already helped Audience inhibition effect Bystander intervention Studies seizure study woman in distress study smoke study elevator study More likely to help from small town WHY Stimulus overload less likely to notice emergency Urban diversity reduced perceptions of similarity less helping Feel anonymous less accountable and diffusion of responsibility Time pressure Good Samaritan Study speech topic made no difference time did 63 of those who were early helped 10 of late helped Lecture 21 11 10 2014 Role Models Observational learning in children Prosocial Modeling in adults Who is more likely to help Altruistic personality Combo of empathy high moral reasoning Parental family influences Religion Gender Whom do we help Attractiveness Similar others Men help women more often than men help men Deserving others Attributions of responsibility Close others Costs of Help for Recipients Distress that comes from not being able to reciprocate Threat to self esteem Overhelping can be cruel Increasing Helping Altruism Reduce ambiguity increase responsibility in emergency type situations Activating concern for self image Teaching moral inclusion Modeling altruism Attributing helpful behavior to altruistic motives labeling process Learning about altruism Increase sense of similarity Affiliation Need to Belong Human beings have pervasive drive to form maintain minimum quantity of lasting positive and significant inter personal relationships Factors influencing Affiliation Evolutionary past Differences in need for affiliation Stress anxiety Schacter s Anxiety Research Women were either in the high anxiety condition or low anxiety condition 10 minute delay 63 of women in high anxiety condition chose to wait with others only 33 of low anxiety women did Participants want to wait with others facing same experience Exception is when people are faced with an upcoming embarrassing event People commonly meet through school work more commonly meeting thru internet On line dating Naturally forming relationships networked relationships targeted relationships FLIRTING Stages of flirting Perper Fox Approach Swivel Synchronize Touching Lecture 22 11 12 2014 Attraction Proximity o Actual distance Closer sitting next to o Functional distance Passing by someone Easily available Anticipate more interaction Familiarity mere exposure effects o Mere exposure effects more you re exposed to something more you like it o Social proximity friends in common o Propinquity Effect Close proximity spoil your environment leading to disliking Physical attractiveness o Classic dance study conducted at University of Minnesota for incoming freshman found that single factor affecting attraction was physical attractiveness o Men report valuing physical attractiveness in partner more than do women in male selection studies Symmetry of face For women baby faced large eyes small nose full lips prominent cheekbones broad smile For men broad forehead thick eyebrows thin lips large jaw Mature dominant face o Feminine faces in men sometimes attractive When women are fertile like more masculine men Feminine face more attractive rest of the month Waist to hip ratio Women 0 7 Men 0 9 Subjective Factors we look less attractive compared to models but do consider Influence of culture time Other desirable qualities and people get to know us Why does physical attractiveness have such impact Inherently rewarding pleasant Very visible salient immediately Physical attractiveness stereotype halo effect beauty may rub off increase in prestige Evolutionary basis Real life Matching occurs Actual pairs tend to be similar in physical attractiveness But more complex matching can occur Lecture 23 11 17 2014 Attraction Similarity Why is similarity attractive Reassuring and reinforcing consensual validation Expect to be liked and have good communication Interaction with similar others can be more fun and enjoyable 2 stage model of attraction process Similarity Attraction Dissimilarity Repulsion Liking those who like us Reciprocal liking One person s liking for another predicts others liking in return balance Self fulfilling prophecy of liking Hard to get effect Exchange Perspective to Choosing a partner Rewards any positive


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