UMass Amherst GEO-SCI 103 - Exam 4 Study Guide (14 pages)

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Exam 4 Study Guide

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Exam 4 Study Guide


Covers all material and information discussed from lectures 15-18.

Study Guide
University of Massachusetts Amherst
Geo-Sci 103 - Intro Oceanography GenEd: PS
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GEO SCI 103 1nd Edition Exam 4 Study Guide Lectures 15 18 Lecture 15 Primary Productivity and the cycling of Nutrients 11 4 5 Kingdoms of life p 176 177 1 Why are bacteria important 2 Which kingdoms include marine autotrophs Adaptations for floating or maintaining position in the water column p 180 1 Plankton Why are plankton so small What adaptive advantage does this provide large surface area to volume ratio tiny size flat shape chains oil droplets 2 Nekton fast swimming swim bladders Controls on the distribution of marine organisms p 180 185 1 Salinity p 180 181 osmosis and osmotic pressure 2 Temperature p 181 metabolic rates are temperature dependent amount of dissolved gas in water is temperature dependent 3 Viscosity p 180 cold water plankton vs warm water plankton shapes of the nekton 4 Distribution of inorganic nutrients p 182 183 184 185 what is the primary source of the nutrients needed for photosynthesis why are deep waters a nutrient sink that is a storehouse for nutrients thermocline and pycnocline act as a barrier or density doorway to the vertical diffusion of nutrients 5 Solar radiation p 182 183 water clarity coastal waters vs open ocean latitude and seasonal changes angle of incidence tropics vs polar Primary productivity p 182 183 1 What is primary productivity be sure to know the generalized formula for photosynthesis and how it works2 What two ingredients are required to drive primary productivity via photosynthesis 3 What do the seasons latitude and upper water column structure have to do with productivity I Studying Marine Organisms A Classifying Organisms a Classification By Nutrition 1 2 Autotrophic Organisms make their own food usually by the process of photosynthesis ex unicellular diatoms multicellular algae seaweed vascular plants Heterotrophic Organisms those that survive on other organisms or their by products as a source a Grazers float in the water and feed upon microscopic autotrophic organisms that surround then unicellular or very small planktonic organisms b Predators constitute the larger members of the ocean community that feed upon smaller animals tuna sharks jellyfish toothed whales c Filter Feeders are able to capture and strain organic particles or small organisms suspended in the water column or pump large volumes of seawater through their bodies and extract organic material that the water contains clams mussels scallops oysters corals barnacles anemones krill d Scavengers organisms that subsist primarily on the decaying remains of other creatures sea stars sea urchins crabs e Deposit Feeders animals that crawl on or through the bottom sediments of the ocean and extract bits of food marine worms and snails b Classification By Habitat organisms can either live in the water column pelagic or the sea floor benthic c Classification by Mobility 1 Motile organisms can move about as free swimmers nekton floaters plankton or on the bottom benthon d Classification by Taxonomy the most familiar way of classifying life that arranges organisms according to their cellular type prokaryote eukaryote body plan and development nutrition and how the various body parts function B 5 Kingdoms of Life a Kingdom Monera bacteria archaea 1 Must be tiny cells which lack membrane bounded nucleus and contain DNA prokaryotic cells 2 Heterotrophic bacteria consumes and decomposers 3 Autotrophic bacteria photosynthetic cyanobacteria and chemosynthetic bacteria b Kingdom Protoctista algae protists slime molds 1 Cells which have a membrane bound NUCLEAUS and usually contain mitochondria plastids and Golgi bodies eukaryotic cells advanced cells evolved via bacterial symbiosis 2 Not bacteria not fungi not plant or animal 3 Most are larger than bacteria 4 Diverse in structure and feeding autotrophic and heterotrophic forms 5 6 c Many are UNCELLULAR single celled organisms called PROTISTS including all phytoplankton in the ocean and other microscopic protozoans MULTICELLULAR FORMS include green brown and red algae seaweed Kingdom Fungi yeasts molds mushrooms 1 All have NUCLEATED cells 2 Develop from SPORES which are resistant to drying 3 Mostly TERRESTRIAL living on land in moist air 4 Require food in the form of organic compounds like animals but digest food outside rather than inside their bodies by releasing enzymes onto their food and decomposing it SAPPORTROPHIC d Kingdom Plantae plants 1 Develop from an embryo surrounded by tissue of female parent 2 All are MULTICELLULAR and each nucleated cell is covered by a cell wall composed of cellulose 3 Most conduct PHOTOSYNTHESIS produce oxygen and use green pigment chlorophyll to make their own food by reducing carbon dioxide AUTOTROPHIC 4 Include salt marsh grasses turtle and eel grasses mangrove trees e Kingdom Animalia animals 1 Develop from a type of embryo called a BALASTULA multicellular hallow sphere formed when an egg is fertilized by a sperm 2 All are MULTICELLULAR with nucleated cells 3 Require food in the form of organic compounds HETEROTROPHIC other organisms or the remains of other organisms 4 Includes invertebrates and vertebrates sponges to squid and tiny zooplankton to huge cetaceans whales and humans II The Distribution of Life in the Ocean A Where life is concentrated a Availability of sunlight and the amount of nutrients in the water ultimately determine where life is concentrated b Pelagic Environment refers to the water column from the surface to the bottom c Benthic Environment refers to the seafloor from a salt marsh or beach to the deepest trench d There are many more species that live in the BENTHIC zone 98 of all animal species than in the Pelagic zone 2 because of the greater variety of habitats available for exploration and specialization on the seabed compared with the water column B Organisms Classified by Lifestyle a Plankton All organisms that drift with ocean current and are passive floaters 1 Phytoplankton a Microscopic unicellular single celled b Photosynthetic algae diatoms 2 Zooplankton a Multicellular animals copepods krill jellies salps b Microscopic single celled protists ciliates flagellates 3 Bacterioplankton a Heterotrophic and photosynthetic forms of bacteria cyanobacteria 4 Meroplankton a Larval stages of familiar marine animals clams crabs barnacles lobster corals sponges the young of these creatures spend the early part of life in plankton b Nekton 1 All organisms capable of moving independent of ocean currents 2 Free swimmers 3 Squid fish mackerel tuna marlin shark rays

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