UT Arlington BIOL 3303 - Prevention and Treatment (5 pages)

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Prevention and Treatment

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Prevention and Treatment


Lecture number:
Lecture Note
University of Texas at Arlington
Biol 3303 - Drugs and Behavior
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BIOL 3303 1st Edition Lecture 20 Outline of Last Lecture I Drugs for Treatment of Mood Disorders a Treatment of Depression b Treatment of Other Mood Disorders Outline of Current Lecture II Prevention and Treatment a Finding the Right Substance Abuse Treatment Program b Levels of Intervention in Substance Abuse Prevention c Drug Treatment and Criminal Justice System d Prevention and Treatment in the Workplace e Personal Journey to Treatment and Recovery f The Family Prevention and Treatment g Lessons from the Past Prevention Approaches that Have Failed h Hope and Promise Components of Effective School Based Prevention Programs i Community Based Programs Current Lecture Certain general guidelines have been offered in deciding a mode of treatment Outpatient treatment should be given preference over inpatient treatment A pharmacological approach should be combined with psychotherapy or behavioral counseling whenever possible Self help groups such as Alcoholics Anonymous AA or similar organizations should be considered Finding the most suitable treatment facility should be guided by several considerations They include the extent of experience the facility has had for the specific type of problem whether medical professionals are accessible in case medical treatment is needed whether the facility encourages family therapy for clients who have intact families whether it provides both group and individual counseling and whether it is accredited by national and state credentialing organizations Efforts to prevent drug abuse are divided into three categories Primary prevention efforts are directed toward those who have had no or minimal experience with drugs In primary prevention it is assumed that the These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute target population may have been exposed to drug taking behavior in other people but have not had drug experiences of their own Secondary prevention efforts are directed toward those who already have had some experience with drugs In secondary prevention the focus is on the lifestyle of individuals with the goal of minimizing the problems associated with drug taking behavior assuming that some level of that behavior has already taken place Tertiary prevention efforts are directed toward those who seek treatment for drug abuse problems and the objective is for these individuals to stay drug free and avoid relapse From the mention stages of prevention we will focus more on the tertiary prevention stage The first thing we want to keep in mind is the drug treatment and criminal justice for these type of prevention stage We need to understand the concept of rehabilitation and deterrence Incarceration containment in jail or prison has two objectives rehabilitation and deterrence Rehabilitation refers to the effort to reduce the likelihood that the individual will behave in a similar way in the future Deterrence refers to the effort to prevent future behavior by conveying the message that a punishment given to others for similar behavior would apply to them as well Drug trafficking laws are established to control the unauthorized manufacture distribution by sale or gift and possession with intent to distribute any controlled substance Controlled substances are defined by federal regulations established in 1970 and revised in 1986 and 1988 in terms of five categories or schedules Schedule I violations are the most severely punished schedule V violations are the least severely punished Special circumstances are considered in arriving at the penalty imposed for a given drug trafficking violation In some cases penalties can be doubled As examples penalties are doubled for firstoffense trafficking of Schedule I or II controlled substances if death or bodily injury results from the use of such substances if a sale is made by a person over the age of twenty one to a person under the age of eighteen or if drug sales are made within one thousand feet of an elementary or secondary school About one half of all individuals entering a publicly funded drug treatment program have done so because of legal pressure to avoid incarceration An individual entering a treatment program as a result of legal pressure is as likely and sometimes more likely to succeed than an individual entering on a volunteer basis A growing presence in the criminal justice system has been the establishment of specific judicial proceedings called drug courts in which adult nonviolent drug offenders are provided intensively supervised treatment as a sentence instead of being incarcerated Drug court programs are successful in providing effective rehabilitation decrease the rate of criminal recidivism repeated arrests are cost effective and increase the length of time an individual remains in treatment These types of problems and the treatment is mainly for the polydrug abusers Since 1986 all U S federal agencies have established employee assistance programs EAPs Nongovernmental organizations have been encouraged but not required by the Drug Free Workplace Act of 1988 to establish EAP services as well as union supported member assistance programs MAPs to handle problems associated with drug and alcohol abuse or dependence Since 1988 all companies and businesses receiving any U S federal contracts or grants are required to provide a drug free workplace Estimates of the adverse impact of alcohol and other drug abuse in the workplace in terms of a loss in productivity range from 60 to 100 billion each year Losses of productivity include increased workers compensation claims These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute absenteeism accidents on the job and sick leave as well as more numerous instances of workers arriving late or requesting early dismissal from work Pre employment drug screening is required for all federal employees as well as periodic random drug testing thereafter Despite its obvious infringement on individual privacy drug testing has become a fact of life in corporate America The possibility of a false positive result and its impact on an individual s job are significant problems associated with widespread drug screening Even if the falsepositive rate is low it is likely that a substantial proportion of those who fail a drug test are innocent More sensitive retesting

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