UW-Milwaukee KIN 351 - Exam 2 Study Guide (9 pages)

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Exam 2 Study Guide

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Exam 2 Study Guide


Study Guide
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
Kin 351 - Sociological Aspects of Health and Human Movement
Sociological Aspects of Health and Human Movement Documents
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Kin 351 1st Edition Exam 2 Study Guide Unit 4 Gender and Physical Activity You should be able to Define o Sex Biological Status o Gender Attitudes feelings and behaviors that a given culture associates with a person s biological sex o Sexism prejudice and discrimination based upon sex or gender You should be able to answer the following questions What is the difference between sex and gender o Sex is determined by physical attributes whereas gender is socially psychologically culturally constructed What are gender normative conforming and gender non conforming behaviors o Gender normative conforming Behavior compatible with cultural expectations o Gender non conforming Behaviors viewed as incompatible with cultural expectations What is the dominant gender logic in the United States o Assumes two mutually exclusive categories o Categories are perceived in terms of difference and as opposites o The two categories are not equal when it comes to access to power What is gender socialization o Process through which one learns how to act according to the rules and expectations of a particular culture How are people socialized to conform to gender expectations in the following areas o Family boys autonomous girls interdependence o Education Teachers behaviors Less attention paid to girls than boys Girls punished when they break expected gender roles Sex segregation much debated Success in different subjects women liberal arts men sciences Girls do better in school grades graduation rates o Peers Self segregate by sex same sex play groups Teasing when gender norms broken Reinforce importance of gender identity o Language Beliefs about gender integrated into language Reflects ideas about gender Shapes how we talk and think about gender Many words for women have negative connotations Girl connotes childishness Lady connotes uptight prim and proper Ma am connotes age sir does not Gal sounds patronizing guy does not Manly having qualities generally associated with a man strong virile appropriate in character to a man Womanly like a woman womanish o Physical activity Gender appropriate PA What is the dominant gender logic when it comes to physical activity and performance o Males Naturally superior Physical characteristics used to prove superiority o Females Naturally inferior Inherent contradiction between being female and being physically competent Who was Catherine Beecher What did she advocate o Calisthenics for women o Concern for women s fragile health o Physical health of women important for social ideals and success of country Moving to towns and cities seen as leading to moral decay Duty of American women to save the country How did the development of the bicycle influence the position of women in the late 1800 s to early 1900 s o It gives a woman a feeling of freedom and self reliance The moment she takes her seat she knows she can t get into harm unless she gets off her bicycle and away she goes the picture of free untrammeled womanhood What is Title IX and what does it say o An educational amendment o purpose Concern about educational institutions systematically privileging males over females o No person in the United States shall on the basis of sex be excluded from participation in be denied the benefits of or be subjected to discrimination under any educational program or activity receiving federal financial assistance How did Title IX influence access and opportunity for girls and women to participate in sport o Tax Payer Law Since everyone is paying taxes institutions receiving federal financial aid cannot discriminate against anyone a part of the institution How did the fitness movement influence women s physical activity habits o Emphasis on improved appearance and attractiveness What factors are associated with gender as an important social determinant of health o Biological sex differences o Sociological factors o Socioeconomic factors Women are paid an average of 0 77 for every 1 paid to men Social gradient o Contextual influences Men and women differentially influenced by environmental and contextual factors Moen and Chermack 2005 outline a conceptual model of gendered life course and health What are o Institutional forces Education and Occupation Expected linear and consistent progression forward Little flexibility Gender discrimination Social norms within institutions o Role selection and pacing Choices but reflect lifetime of socialization Life transitions marriage co habitation parenthood retirement major illness Perceived and real control o Linked lives and role connections Social emotional and material support Care takers What is hegemonic masculinity o Forms of masculinity which are dominant How do men boys and women girls compare in terms of physical activity o Younger more PA than older o Males more PA than females Review questions from In Class Activity 5 Unit 5 Age and Physical Activity You should be able to answer the following questions What is the life course and what are the major phases of the life course How have they changed over time o Life course How chronological age relationships common life transitions and social change shape people s lives from birth to death o Major Phases Prenatal period conception to birth Infancy birth to 18 24 months Early childhood 2 5 years Middle and late childhood 6 11 years Adolescence 10 12 to 18 years Early adulthood 20s to 30s Middle adulthood 40s to 60s Late adulthood 60s 70s to death o Has changed over time with modernization and mass longevity leading to finer gradations What are age norms o Behaviors that are expected of people of a specific age in a given society at a particular point in time o Informal expectations or formal rules and laws What is the trend in terms of the lifespan o It has increased over the years o Because humans are living longer many people will spend at least 1 3 of adulthood in retirement What are common age related stereotypes o Preconceived judgments about the characteristics of different age groups Common stereotypes of the elderly include that they are Forgetful set in their ways meddlesome conservative inactive unproductive lonely mentally dim and uninterested in sex Studies find women are viewed as old as much as a decade sooner than men What is ageism o Discrimination based solely on the bases of age assumed age How is age a social determinant of health o Loss of freedom and efficacy o Lowered self esteem and personal happiness o Exclusion from normal social interaction and social

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