IUB BIOL-L 211 - Introduction to Translation (3 pages)

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Introduction to Translation

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Introduction to Translation


Introduction to Translation (*note- she did not finish all the slides in lecture)

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Indiana University, Bloomington
Biol-L 211 - Molecular Biology
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BIOL L211 Lecture 30 Outline of Last Lecture I Genetic Code II Cracking the Genetic Code III Degeneracy of the Genetic Code Outline of Current Lecture I Article II Translation III Ribosome Composition Current Lecture Introduction to Translation I Article A Google Wants to Store Your Genome MIT Technology Review B Google cloud allows storage and sharing of genomic data 100GB per genome 1 25 year to store DNA information 2 Can additionally pay to access other genomes C Goal 1 Create a large functional genomic database 2 Provide a resource that can be accessed by medical doctors to allow for quick comparison of genomic information between patients with similar conditions D Additional competition between Google IBM and Microsof II Translation A Translation is the process of protein production following transcription These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute B Ribosomes organelles responsible for translation 1 Composed of a large and small subunit 2 The small subunit recruits and binds mRNA 3 Initiator tRNA contacts the start codon 4 Large subunit binds 5 Translation begins following the template 5 to 3 C Translation in Prokaryotes 1 Due to lack of a nucleus transcription and translation are not isolated processes there is no spatial separation 2 Transcription and translation can thus occur simultaneously 3 Polycistronic mRNA mRNA that has multiple ORFs a Will occur if genes are organized in an operon b Note Each ORF encodes a protein c Each ORF has a start and stop codon D Translation in Eukaryotes 1 Transcription takes place in the nucleus 2 Translation occurs in the cytoplasm 3 Monocistronic mRNA mRNA that has only one ORF E Aminoacyl tRNA Synthetases 1 Uncharged tRNA tRNA with no amino acid attached 2 Charged tRNA tRNA with its amino acid on the acceptor stem 3 Each tRNA is charged by a specific aminoacyl tRNA synthetase III Ribosome Composition A Ribosomal RNA rRNA and Proteins B Large Subunit 1 Holds peptidyl transferase center a This center is responsible for forming the bonds between amino acids to form proteins 2 60S in eukaryotes 50S in prokaryotes a Where S Svedberg unit measure of centrifugation velocity C Small Subunit 1 First to bind to mRNA 2 Location where tRNAs read mRNA codons 3 40S in eukaryotes 30S in prokaryotes D Eukaryotes have 80S ribosomes Prokaryotes have 70S ribosomes Note Antibiotics ofen target the ribosomes of bacteria E A P and E sites 1 P site recruits initiator tRNA a P site is p roactive 2 Initiator tRNA interacts with AUG start codon and then the large subunit comes 3 A site sets alignment of the second codon a The second tRNA interacts with mRNA here b Peptide bond is formed and the ribosome moves over to the next codon initiator tRNA transferred to E site 4 E site tRNA is e jected Note during this process the tRNA bridges the gap between the large and small ribosomal subunits

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