IUB CHEM-C 117 - Final Exam Study Guide (3 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide



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Final Exam Study Guide

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Pages:
3
Type:
Study Guide
School:
Indiana University, Bloomington
Course:
Chem-C 117 - Principles of Chemistry and Biochemistry I
Principles of Chemistry and Biochemistry I Documents
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CHEM 117 5 Exam 3 Study Guide Chapter 13 The Effect of Temperature on Reaction Rate Section 13 5 Arrhenius Equation k Ae Ea RT where k is the constant rate A is a frequency factor related to the number of times that reactants approach the energy barrier per unit time and with the proper orientation for a successful reaction to occur Ea is the activation energy R is the gas constant 8 314 J mol K and T is the temperature in Kelvin Higher T leads to larger k which increases the rate New relationship derived from Arrhenius equation ln k2 l1 Ea R 1 T2 1 T1 Section 13 6 Reaction Mechanisms 1 Two types of molecular transformations unimolecular the structure of a single particle rearranges to produce a different particle or particles bimolecular two particles collide and rearrange into products new bonds may be formed between the reactants and existing bonds may be broken Study Table 13 3 Rate Laws for Elementary Steps Need to memorize not on test Rules for Mechanism Elementary Steps a the individual elementary steps of a mechanism must add up to the overall reaction b The individual elementary steps cannot be broken down into simpler steps c There is a reaction intermediate HI g in this mechanistic scheme d In most mechanistic schemes one of the elementary steps is slower than the others and is called the rate determining step Study page 626 in textbook Section 13 7 Catalysts The primary function of a catalyst is to alter the mechanism so that the activation energy for the rate limiting step is decreased which has the effect of increasing the rate constant for that step Study Energy Diagram on page 628 Chapter 14 Chemical Equilibrium Dynamic Equilibrium The condition in which the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction Expressing the equilibrium constant in terms of pressure Kp Expression for Kp Kp Products Reactants P C c x P D d P A a x P B b The values of Kc and Kp are not necessarily the same because of the difference in units Kc Kp If n 0 Heterogeneous Equilibria the concentrations of pure solids and pure liquids do not change during the course of a reaction because their concentration doesn t change solids and liquids are not included in the equilibrium constant expression The Reaction Quotient Qc C c D d A a B b If Q K reaction will proceed to the right If Q K reaction will proceed to the left Le Chatelier s Principle When a chemical system at equilibrium is disturbed the system shifts in a direction that minimizes the disturbance Guides us in predicting the effect various changes in conditions have on the position of equilibrium Effects of Volume change on Equilibrium When volume decreases the pressure is increased and therefore shifts to the right because there are more moles on the left Increasing the volume causes the reaction to shift in the direction that has the great number of moles of gas particles If a reaction has an equal number of moles of gas on both sides of the chemical equation then a change in volume produces no effect on the equilibrium adding an inert gas to the mixture at a fixed volume has no effect on equilibrium The Effect of Temperature Changes on Equilibrium position Exothermic Reactions When the temperature decreases the reaction shifts to the right When the temperature increases the reaction shifts to the left Endothermic Reactions When the temperature decreases the reaction shifts to the left When the temperature increases the reaction shifts to the right


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