UMass Amherst ANTHRO 150 - Antrho 150 Midterm (9 pages)

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Antrho 150 Midterm



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Antrho 150 Midterm

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Pages:
9
School:
University of Massachusetts Amherst
Course:
Anthro 150 - Ancient Civilizations
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Dani Callahan 1st Cataract Up near top of Nile Egypt first bend located in city of Aswan a shallow stretch of Nile where the surface is broken by numerous small boulders and stones protruding from the riverbed made navigation to delta possible without encountering a barrier A group and C group Nubians all settled in A A is oldest B cattle pastoralism C Nubia resettled as Egypt calmed down settling of nomads become more settled farmers the first original cultures of Nubia Annual Flood Nile floods natural irrigation brings in fertile silt right up to edge of desert shallow cover of water Nov to Feb root foods coming forth Mar to Jul drought seeds fruits game scarce Aug Sept inundation flood season fish seeds dates Low flood no marshes meadows or game High flood destroy vegetation and game drain late Farming and Agriculture occurs in Neolithic started with sedentism kicked out foragers not as good not balanced meals surplus of goods allowed for specialization and focuses cultural changes shifts in environments means not everything is as attainable Halaf Hassuna and Samarra are Mesopotamian agricultural societies Agriculture single factor credited with giving the opportunity to the ancient Mesopotamian cultures to develop such inventions as pottery weaving housing and the calendar and math Bevel Rim Bowl mass production plain extensive trading used for regulation during work for food basis originated in Uruk Bulla Token used for record keeping and counting first example of writing allows for long distance communication used cuneiform bulla envelope to put token inside possibly evolved at Ur City came before city states ruled by higher power dependent on farmland farming becomes too demanding and difficult integrated into social pyramid complex ziggurat center complex cultural institution in which humans share core values and a desire to improve the quality of their existence through specialization and organization City state independent city and surrounding territory rules itself single urban center with smaller farming towns surrounding Mesopotamia a sovereign state compromising a city and the surrounding countryside Civilization a group of ppl with ways of life religion and learning the stage of human social development and organization which is considered most advanced Key characteristic specialized workers record keeping advanced technology advanced cities complex gov Colonialism taking control of an area by sending its citizens to settle there all about resource extraction the process of exploring and maintain colonies in one territory by another country Complexity Simplicity simpler pottery not done in home anymore production mode do what you re told by looking at how pottery looks you can see social complexity Conspicuous consumption being able to show off what you have and how much you have by putting it in tombs I m so rich I can afford to throw this all in a grave and still have money Craft Specialization result of centralization and surplus people didn t have to focus on farming so they could focus more on specializations make a living through trading gods rather than producing their own food Cuneiform Uruk period pictographs wedge shaped symbols token impressions led to evolution of token impressions denoting or relating to the wedge shaped characters used in the ancient writing systems of Mesopotamia on bulla first evidence of writing Cylinder seals rolled out to make an impression signatures badges symbol of higher government power identifies an agent of the state standardized mode of identification that showed power or authority Domestication Neolithic transformation see it all over moving of goods all over fertile crescents goats first modification of the genetic make up of a population of plants or animals modification either intentionally or not of the genetic makeup of a population of plants and animals process of converting wild animals or wild plants into forms that humans can care for and cultivate adaption for human use Giza plateau location of great pyramids Halaf Hassuna Samarra Mesopotamian agricultural societies Halaf 7000 6000BCE lay foundation of agriculture and pottery production beginning of export Samarra centralized social hierarchy warfare wealth First development towards Mesopotamian civ pottery northern Tigris Hierarchy a social group arranged in ranks or classes for making and enforcing decisions ranks and classes Hierakonpolis Lower Egypt all different dynasty s able to control smaller lands but not to unite them UNTIL united Hierakonpolis and Thebes under Thebes Kind Mentuhotep founder of Middle Kingdom trade center center of large pottery industry craft specialization 4000 3000BC Africa major center of predynastic Egypt Ideology a system of ideas and ideals especially on that forms the basis of economic or political theory and policy science of ideas system of ideas and beliefs that support relations of power and domination used mainly by elites to obtain control Imperialism influencing cultural expansion acquiring land can see shift through material goods can tell differences obtaining land expanding regional control WITHOUT ADDING PEOPLE don t actually move there just control it will see monuments of control Colonialism is just taking over resource extraction control over those resources raw materials coming out no giving back colonize there will not see colonies of archaeological evidence Irrigation Nile Flood did irrigation come from farming or did farming result from irrigation Jericho found a non residential tower building symbol of massive changes in social organization earliest Neolithic settlements oldest known city built walls and moat around city Literacy only elite were literate another form of social control Long Distance trade moving of goods throughout Fertile Crescent trade for goods provided wealth wealth power hierarchies developed to the accumulation of wealth and the population growth in urban centers making goods for trade aided in craft and product specialization enables cities to interact and share ideas of politics and culture Mastaba stone square buildings at the bottom of pyramids beginnings of pyramids monumental architecture stone rectangular structures with sloping sides and flat tops that were the basis of pyramids rectangular burial monument in ancient Egypt Mesopotamia city state power in resource control inside Fertile Crescent urban revolution needed irrigation emergence of specialization wide flat plain in


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