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UGA BIOL 1108 - EXAM 4

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BIOL 1108 1nd EditionExam # 4 Study Guide Lectures: 15 – 19Lecture 15 (October 22)Salt and Water Balance Learning Objectives1. Relate osmoconformers and osmoregulators to their environments 2. Relate animals’ nitrogenous wastes to an animal’s environment and energy use3. Compare/ contrast evolutionary structural variations for osmoregulation and excretionIn The News: “Why does Nathan Siegal find Apeel Sciences appealing?”- A biological film allows fruit from rotting as fast- Prevent chemical signals of the food from getting to insects eating them- Keeping the moisture inside, slowing down rotting and bacterial growth- Increases shelf-life, decrease need of pesticides - Common pesticide application: are airborne that can reach into other areas other than just crops (contamination, pollution), affects bodily functions of certain organisms- Pesticide Pros: increase yields, enhance industrialization- Pesticide Cons: create resisting organisms, hit non-target organisms, harming environment - Effects on Natural Systems: biomagnification- pesticides’ effects increase the higher the food chain; BET in birds= soft shells (dead offspring)- Organic farms even have detection of pesticides because of the spreado Alternatives: organic farming, rotating crops, eat local (less cost), biofilms like in Apeel Sciences - Effects on humans: reproduction, nervous, and even immune systemso Organophosphorus pesticides Inhibits acetlycholrinesesterase- Degrades acetylcholine in synapse Toxicity results- Autonomic dysfunction- Involuntary movements- Affects muscle fibers- Respiratory depressionOSMOREGULATION- A process by which animals control their solute concentrations and balance their water gain and loss- Linked structurally and functionally with the excretory system- Water travels to more concentrated areas- Hyperosmotic: water moves into cell as the inside of the cell as more solutes. This causes the cell to burst or lyse. - Isoosmotic: the concentrations outside and inside the cell are the same, making the exchange of water equal. - Hypoosmotic: water moves out of cell as the outside of the cell has more solutes. This causes the cell to shrink and shrivel.- Osmoconformers- conform to their environmentso Consist in mostly marine invertebrateso There are similar concentrations of solute between the cell and water- Osmoregulators- are independent to the environmento Mostly terrestrial vertebrates  The problem land animals struggle with is to retain water Adaptations include type of waste being produce, type of skin, ect.o Must maintain cellular concentration from changing environment  TOPHAT QUESTION: Freshwater fish are hyperosmotic to their environment and gain water TOPHAT QUESTION: Most marine fish are hypposmotic to their environment and lose water - Marine fish are adapted to have gills that excrete solutes, whereas freshwater fish absorb more solutes through their gills. TOPHAT QUESTION: Compare to a freshwater fish, you would expect a marine fish to: Have more concentrated urineEXCRETION- Riding the body of nitrogenous metabolites - Linked structurally and functionally with osmoregulation- Nitrogenous wasteso Ammonia Most toxic Most aquatic animals because water can easily break down solutes Requires more water to excreteo Urea Mammals, most amphibians, sharks, and some bony fisho Uric Acid Many reptiles (including birds), insects, and land snails Least toxic Most lay eggs, so the solutes aren’t as harmful to offspring Needs the most energy to produce (endotherms require more energy ex. Predators)EVOLUTIONARY STRUCTURAL VARIATIONS- Protonephridiao Ex. Flatworms (long, thin body plan)o Use cilia to pull bodily fluids into the flame bulb and filters ito Useful products return back into the body- Metanephridiao Ex. Annelidso Diffusion occurs between capillaries and tubuleso Excreting unhelpful products through body opening- Malpighian Tubuleso Ex. Terrestrial arthropodso Surface area to volume ratio increases absorptiono Least toxic waste, need to conserve watero Pulls in salts and wastes into the guto Has no filtering process but can re-absorb helpful productso Helps conserve energy and water- Kidneyso Ex. Vertebrates and other chordates o Blood flows into kidneyso Nephrons of the kidneys conserve water Lecture 16 (October 24) Kidney: Structure, Function, and RegulationLearning Objectives1. Describe the structures and process of blood filtration to urine formation in kidney nephrons2. Describe a kidney regulation processEXCRETORY SYSTEM FUNCTION OVERVIEW - Filtrationo Hydrostatic pressure (blood pressure) pushes bodily fluids (blood, hemolymph, coelomic) in contact with a selectively permeable membrane (transport epithelium) o Diffusion depends on the concentration of solutes - Re-absorptiono Recovering useful molecules and water from the filtrate (water and solutes) and then returning it to the bodily fluids.- Secretion o The discharge of wastes from the bodily fluids to the filtrate- Excretiono Filtrate with nitrogenous wastes and is released from the body as urineFUNCTIONS1. Excretion of waste (unwanted products of metabolism)a. Filtration starts at the Bowman’s Capsule, where there is a lot of pressure2. Salt and water balance: osmoregulationBLOOD FILTRATE TO URINE- Filtration of blood flows to the Bowman’s Capsule as active transport (lots of energy)- In the proximal tubule, the filtrate goes through reabsorption before heading down the Loop of Henleo The longer the loop the more the organism can conserve water- The descending part of the Loop of Henle contains many aquaporins in order for water to reabsorb back into the kidneys (more hyperosmotic).- As the loop ascends, salt/ solutes are being pulled out of the filtrate through passive transport. o This part of the Loop of Henle is impermeable to water and contains no aquaporins o The higher the filtrate travels the more diluted it gets.- At the distal tubule, the diluted filtrate controls body pH through reabsorption (active transport)- Lastly, while the filtrate travels down the collecting duct there is more water reabsorption and active removal of salt - Osmolarity gradient in each kidney increases in intestinal fluid - 300 mOsm/L= blood- 1200 mOsm/L= urine- 1000 mOsm/L= ocean waterREGULATION- Pituitary gland- produces endocrine hormones to signal out kidneyso Releases Antidiuretic hormone to reduce urination if water in blood is low - Hypothalamus- regulates


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