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Flora of China 22 336 339 2006 84 ANTHOXANTHUM Linnaeus Sp Pl 1 28 1753 huang hua mao shu Wu Zhenlan Sylvia M Phillips Hierochlo R Brown Perennial fragrant herbs Inflorescence an open or contracted panicle Spikelets lanceolate to plumply elliptic or oblong weakly laterally compressed florets 3 brown lower 2 florets staminate or sterile terminal floret bisexual rachilla disarticulating above glumes but not between florets Glumes persistent unequal to subequal lanceolate to ovate lower glume shorter 1 3 veined upper glume 3 5 veined about as long as spikelet apex acute Lower 2 florets subequal with a palea and 3 stamens or sterile and epaleate or a combination of both lemmas equal to or shorter than upper glume firmly membranous to leathery often brown pilose on back and ciliate along margins apex emarginate to deeply 2 lobed awnless with a short straight awn from above middle or geniculately awned from near base Bisexual floret equaling or shorter than 2 lower florets lemma cartilaginous glossy 3 5 veined margins convolute and covering palea apex awnless rarely mucronate palea 1 3 veined without keels lodicules absent or 2 stamens 2 stigmas plumose x 5 7 About 50 species temperate and cold regions of both hemispheres also on tropical mountains ten species three endemic in China All species are scented with coumarin C9H6O2 and some are used medicinally for their coumarin content Hierochlo has traditionally been recognized on the basis of the two lower florets being staminate paleate and awnless or only shortly awned in contrast to the sterile epaleate geniculately awned lower florets in typical Anthoxanthum Lodicules are also absent in typical Anthoxanthum However it is now known that a considerable number of species is intermediate in these characters including some in China and also some e g A hookeri where the sex of the lower florets is variable within the species There is no justification for continuing to recognize two separate genera The species are all clearly



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