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DOI 10 1002 cphc 200600514 Vertically Aligned Antimony Nanowires as Solid State pH Sensors brane see Experimental Section 12 13 The fabrication procedures of vertically oriented Sb nanowire arrays are illustrated in Figure 1 In the first step a bilayer metal thin film Ti Au 20 300 nm was patterned onto the AAO membrane as the Pai Chun Chang a Hsiang Yu Chen a Jian Shan Ye b Fwu Shan Sheu b and Jia G Lu a Antimony Sb has a remarkable linear response to the H concentration in solution and it is applied for commercial pH electrodes 1 2 Unlike conventional glass tube based pH electrode the solid state Sb electrode represents a good candidate for an integrated pH sensor with a fabrication process that is compatible to the silicon based complementary metal oxide semiconductor CMOS process In addition due to its high resistance to corrosion the Sb based pH electrode has been used in a wide range of applications For instance the Sb electrode withstands hydrofluoric HF acid and allows reliable determination of the proton concentration in HF containing solution in which a glass electrode normally cannot be used Moreover the Sb electrode has demonstrated effectiveness in clinical operations It has been utilized to determine the intramyocardial pH during open heart surgery 3 the ambulatory esophageal pH 4 and dental plaque pH 5 In addition by coating with suitable enzymes the Sb electrode functions as a potentiometric enzyme electrode that can be used to determine the concentration of urea 6 Because of its versatile sensing applications the Sb probe with a size scale that is compatible to cells has great potential for meeting the demands of biomedical research 4 7 The in vivo and in vitro intracellular real time monitoring of pH 8 Na K a key subject in cell biology and physiology may require vertically oriented nanoscale electrodes in close contact with cells Such nanoelectrodes can be implemented by vertically grown nanowires and they can be applied to penetrate smoothly and



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