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Biological Signal Processing Richard B Wells Chapter 15 Prelude to ART 1 Adaptive Resonance Theory By most authors accounts the birth of adaptive resonance theory ART is recognized as being in 1976 with the appearance of GROS6 In an important sense this is true but it diminishes the fact that ART developed over a period of years dating back into the late 1960s Indeed many of the key ideas used in GROS6 will not make sense to the novice unless he has already become familiar with them from Grossberg s earlier publications By 1976 they had become part of what is often called the standard argument used in the first sections of a technical journal paper The purpose of this chapter is to present the key ideas and findings that are essential for the actual discussion of adaptive resonance theory in chapter 16 ART networks undeserved reputation for being very complicated is due to an unfortunate historical accident The foundational ideas that would lead to ART were discovered and published in the dark age of neural network research dating from 1968 until well into the 1980s In some ways the history of ART can be compared to the Carolingian Renaissance that began with Charlemagne and flourished briefly in the ninth century before vanishing in the tumult of the tenth Fortunately for ART Grossberg unlike Charlemagne was still alive and active when the darkness lifted Had Charlemagne s successors been competent men the dark ages might have ended 300 years sooner ART s foundations never did disappear but like the post Carolingians there are many younger theorists who came into the neural network field in the 1980s and 1990s and who are simply too young to know about the propaedeutic work of the late 1960s and early 1970s GROS2 GROS3 GROS11 18 ELIA GROS4 6 ART can looked at as the fusion of two major themes recurrent on center off surround networks and Outstars There is of course more to an ART network than just these two elements but they are the central elements and everything

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