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Enhanced dopamine release by nicotine in cigarette smokers



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International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 2008 11 413 417 Copyright f 2007 CINP doi 10 1017 S1461145707008103 Enhanced dopamine release by nicotine in cigarette smokers a double blind randomized placebo controlled pilot study B R I EF R E P O R T CINP Hidehiko Takahashi1 Yota Fujimura1 Mika Hayashi2 Harumasa Takano1 Motoichiro Kato2 Yoshiro Okubo3 Iwao Kanno1 Hiroshi Ito1 and Tetsuya Suhara1 1 Molecular Imaging Centre Department of Molecular Neuroimaging National Institute of Radiological Sciences Anagawa Inage ku Chiba Japan 2 Department of Neuropsychiatry Keio University School of Medicine Shinanomachi Shinjuku ku Tokyo Japan 3 Department of Neuropsychiatry Nippon Medical School Sendagi Bunkyo ku Tokyo Japan Abstract Previous studies of smoking on dopamine release in humans were investigated only in smokers Using nicotine gum we examined the e ect of nicotine on dopamine release in smokers and non smokers and its relation to the degree of nicotine dependence Smokers and non smokers participated in a double blind randomized placebo controlled cross over study They participated in two PET measurements with 11C raclopride in which they received either nicotine or placebo Changes in 11C raclopride nondisplaceable binding potential BPND following nicotine administration were quanti ed Smokers showed signi cant decrease in BP in the striatum following nicotine administration but non smokers did not show such a decrease The BPND di erence between the two scanning sessions was correlated with the degree of nicotine dependence The BPND di erence might re ect enhanced dopamine release in smokers and the reinforced e ect of nicotine These data suggest the feasibility of our gum method as well as the importance of the degree of dependence in future studies of the nicotine e ect on the dopamine system Received 15 May 2007 Reviewed 4 July 2007 Revised 18 August 2007 Accepted 25 August 2007 First published online 22 October 2007 Key words Dependence dopamine nicotine



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