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Ferrous and Non-Ferrous Metals



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Ferrous and Non Ferrous Metals Group 5 Josh Agenbroad Joy Best Iris Gallegos Keith Griego September 19 2005 Ferrous Metals Iron as a base metal Wide Range of Applications Sheet Steel cars aircraft Plates ships bridges Structural I Beams Machinery gears axles crankshafts Example Automobiles are generally 55 60 by weight ferrous metals Production Coke produces heat and carbon dioxide Limestone acts as Flux removes impurities as slag Iron Ore Pellets Blast Furnace Steel More refined less manganese silicone carbon Requires higher temperatures Stronger and easier to work with Electric Furnace High temperatures Heat from electric arc 3500 degrees F Basic Oxygen Furnace Faster output Good for structural components I beams Casting Ingots Molten steel poured into molds ingots for cooling to a solid Square Rectangle Drum shaped hundreds of pounds to 40tons Reheated for rolling working Continuous Casting Removes need for ingots Higher quality Reduced cost Carbon and Alloy Steels Carbon and alloy steels are among the most commonly used metals Are produced in all shapes and sizes depending on the desired application For example plumbing fixtures one wants a less corrosive material Effects of Various Elements in Steels Various elements are added to steels in order to affect their properties like hardness or wear and tear The higher the percentages the greater the effects For example Calcium It deoxidizes steel and improves its toughness Another element is Carbon Increasing amounts of carbon reduce toughness and weldability or its ability to transfer heat Silicon improves strength and corrosion resistance as well as electrical conductivity this is why its used for microprocessors or semiconductors Residual Elements in Steels What is a residual element A residual element is an unwanted element which causes undesired affects Unwanted residual elements Antimony Arsenic Hydrogen Nitrogen Oxygen and Tin Cause embrittlement and reduce strength The way to eliminate the presence of



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