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Protein Structure and Enzyme Function



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Protein Structure and Enzyme Function How Protein Activity Depends on Proper Folding Four Levels of Protein Structure Primary Sequence Tertiary Folding by R group interactions Quaternary Two or more chains associating Secondary Coiling by Hydrogen Bonding Proteins Structure Primary structure chain of amino acids Amino acids have common features Carboxylic Acid Group Amino Group R Central Carbon The R Group Differs for Each Amino Acid Proteins Structure Forming the Protein Chain Phenylalanine Leucine Dehydration Synthesis between COOH NH2 Proteins Structure Forming the Protein Chain The Peptide Bond Water Phenylalanine Leucine Dipeptide Four Levels of Protein Structure Secondary Structure Folded structure due to hydrogen bonds between the amino and acid groups of amino acids N C H O O C N C H O H O H N C N or Four Levels of Protein Structure Tertiary Structure Three dimensional folded structure due to attractions and repulsions between R groups Can involve covalent bonding hydrogen bonding ionic interactions hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions Four Levels of Protein Structure Quaternary Structure Association of two or more protein chains eg Hemoglobin is composed of 4 protein chains 2 are called alpha hemoglobin 2 are called beta hemoglobin Applying Your Knowledge 1 2 3 4 Primary Secondary Tertiary Quaternary A Which structure results from hydrogen bonding B Which structure involves an association of two or more protein chains C Which structure describes the linear sequence of amino acids D Which structure depends upon interactions between the R groups of the amino acids Enzymes Assist in Biological Reactions Enzymes are biological catalysts biological composed of protein or rarely RNA catalyst speeds up a reaction without being changed by the reaction Properties of Enzymes Most enzymes are proteins All enzymes are SPECIFIC for the reactants substrates in the reactions that they catalyze Enzymes speed up biological reactions by lowering the activation energy for



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