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Chromosomes and Human Genetics



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Chromosomes and Human Genetics Karyotype A picture of your chromosomes at metaphase Why not another phase of mitosis Chromosomes are easiest seen in metaphase Answers questions about chromosome abnormalities Cultured in vitro which means in glass The opposite term for a living body test is called Genes Genes GENEtic information at a certain spot on the chromosome Gene locus The LOCation of a gene Alleles Alternative form of a gene Homologous chromosomes a pair of chromosomes that contains genes for the same trait one from ma and one from pa Chromosome Pairs We have 46 chromosomes that are like volumes of two sets of books Chromosomes 1 22 are called autosomes Chromosomes 23 is called the sex chromosomes Chromosomes 1 22 are paired and both pairs have the same length and shape Chromosome Pairs cont The pairs of chromosomes carry the same hereditary instructions for the same traits Your father gave you one set your mother another set but hers was an alternative edition from your father s Her set covers the same topics but are slightly different for many of the instructions Autosomes and Sex Chromosomes Autosomes are 22 pairs that are not the sex chromosomes Autosomes are the same in both sexes The sex chromosmes are the 23rd pair Sex chromosmes come in two varities X and Y XX Female XY Male Boy Meets Girl Both sexes have an chromosome The X chromosome has more than 2 300 genes MOST of the X chromosome are nonsexual traits such as blood clotting The Y chromosome has fewer than 24 genes One is the MASTER GENE for male determination We All Start Out As Females The Master gene determines if a person will become male if it is not present then the person becomes a So the mother or father determines the sex of the child



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