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The Tolerance for Visual Feedback Distortions in a Virtual environment



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Physiology Behavior 77 2002 651 655 The tolerance for visual feedback distortions in a virtual environment Yoky Matsuokaa Sonya J Allinb Roberta L Klatzkyc a Robotics Institute and Mechanical Engineering Carnegie Mellon University 5000 Forbes Avenue NSH3207 Pittsburgh PA 15213 USA b Human Computer Interface Institute Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh PA 15213 USA c Department of Psychology Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh PA 15213 USA Received 9 July 2002 accepted 4 September 2002 Abstract We are interested in using a virtual environment with a robotic device to extend the strength and mobility of people recovering from strokes by steering them beyond what they had thought they were capable of doing Previously we identified just noticeable differences JND of a finger s force production and position displacement in a virtual environment In this paper we extend this investigation by identifying peoples tolerance for distortions of visual representations of force production and positional displacement in a virtual environment We determined that subjects are not capable of reliably detecting inaccuracies in visual representation until there is 36 distortion This discrepancy between actual and perceived movements is significantly larger than the JNDs reported in the past indicating that a virtual robotic environment could be a valuable tool for steering actual movements further away from perceived movements We believe this distorted condition may allow people recovering from strokes even those who have perceptual or cognitive deficits to rehabilitate with greater ease D 2002 Elsevier Science Inc All rights reserved Keywords Robotic rehabilitation Virtual environment Just noticeable difference Feedback distortion 1 Introduction The motor impairment of people recovering from strokes is often localized to one side of the body and to one area in particular such as the arm or the hand Motor recovery occurs as the nervous system rewires its neural circuits to



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