SMU PHYS 1304 - Electric Fields (67 pages)

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Electric Fields



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Electric Fields

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Lecture Notes


Pages:
67
School:
Southern Methodist University
Course:
Phys 1304 - Introductory Electricity and Magnetism
Introductory Electricity and Magnetism Documents

Unformatted text preview:

Chapter 23 Electric Fields Electricity and Magnetism Some History Many applications Chinese Macroscopic and microscopic Documents suggest that magnetism was observed as early as 2000 BC Greeks Electrical and magnetic phenomena as early as 700 BC Experiments with amber and magnetite Electricity and Magnetism Some History 2 1600 William Gilbert showed electrification effects were not confined to just amber The electrification effects were a general phenomena 1785 Charles Coulomb confirmed inverse square law form for electric forces Electricity and Magnetism Some History 3 1819 Hans Oersted found a compass needle deflected when near a wire carrying an electric current 1831 Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry showed that when a wire is moved near a magnet an electric current is produced in the wire Electricity and Magnetism Some History 4 1873 James Clerk Maxwell used observations and other experimental facts as a basis for formulating the laws of electromagnetism Unified electricity and magnetism 1888 Heinrich Hertz verified Maxwell s predictions He produced electromagnetic waves Electric Charges There are two kinds of electric charges Called positive and negative Negative charges are the type possessed by electrons Positive charges are the type possessed by protons Charges of the same sign repel one another and charges with opposite signs attract one another Electric Charges 2 The rubber rod is negatively charged The glass rod is positively charged The two rods will attract Electric Charges 3 The rubber rod is negatively charged The second rubber rod is also negatively charged The two rods will repel More About Electric Charges Electric charge is always conserved in an isolated system For example charge is not created in the process of rubbing two objects together The electrification is due to a transfer of charge from one object to another Conservation of Electric Charges A glass rod is rubbed with silk Electrons are transferred from the glass to the silk Each electron



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