Southern Miss BSC 381 - Gastroenteritis (31 pages)

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Gastroenteritis



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Gastroenteritis

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Lecture Notes


Pages:
31
School:
The University of Southern Mississippi
Course:
Bsc 381 - Microorganisms in Health and Disease

Unformatted text preview:

Gastroenteritis Inflammation of stomach or intestines Inhibits nutrient absorption and excessive H2O and electrolyte loss Bacterial Viral Parasites Poisoning by microbial toxins food borne intoxication Signs and Symptoms General features diarrhea loss of appetite abdominal cramps nausea vomiting and possibly fever Dysentery Typically self Limiting Enteric fevers Systemic with severe headache high fever abscesses intestinal rupture shock and death Epidemiology Occurs worldwide Oral to fecal route of transmission Water common reservoir Overcrowding poor sanitation are risk factors Animals may be source of infection Prevention Hand washing Proper food handling and complete cooking Pasteurization of milk and juices Adequate sanitation Safe water supplies Treatment Rapid replacement of fluids and electrolytes Anti nausea medication Antimicrobials may be used in severe cases Bacterial Gastroenteritis 3 groups of gram negative bacteria account for most bacterial intestinal infections Vibrio cholerae Cholera Enterics Salmonella Shigella E coli Campylobacter jejuni Cholera Causative agent Vibrio cholerae High infectious dose Bacteria sensitive to stomach acid Adheres to small intestine and multiply Bacteria don t enter cells Cholera toxin Potent exotoxin Causes intestinal cells to rapidly pump out electrolytes Passive osmotic H2O loss follows Metabolic acidosis Shock Heavy loss of fluid rice water stool Up to 20L of fluids lost per day May discharge 1 million bacteria per ml of feces Untreated cases potentially fatal Fluid electrolyte replacement Tetracycline reduces toxin production Shigellosis Causative Agent Shigella sp S dysenteriae S flexneri S boydii S sonnei Low infecting dose Bacteria not sensitive to stomach acid Characterized by fever and dysentery Infects cells of large intestine and initiates intense inflammatory response Dead cells slough off Produces areas covered with pus and blood All species produce enterotoxin and type III secretion systems S dysenteriae



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