Chico GEOS 342 - Supplemental Readings on Earthquakes (108 pages)

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Supplemental Readings on Earthquakes



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Supplemental Readings on Earthquakes

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Lecture Notes


Pages:
108
School:
California State University, Chico
Course:
Geos 342 - Concepts in Earth and Space Sciences

Unformatted text preview:

Supplemental Readings on Earthquakes 2008 Ann Bykerk Kauffman Dept of Geological and Environmental Sciences California State University Chico Important Technical Terms stress Pressures exerted on rocks inside the earth similar to pressures experienced by divers deep under water differential stress When stresses are stronger in one direction than another For example a rock deep underground will feel a squeezing pressure in all directions but the pressure in a vertical direction may be stronger This is analogous to a deep sea diver who has a large walrus sitting on him he is squeezed harder from above by the walrus than from the sides by the water strain A change in the shape of a rock body caused by differential stress For example a rock may get shorter and thicker or a rock may be bent In the Earthquakes chapter of the book when the authors write strain they really mean elastic strain elastic strain A temporary strain that lasts only as long as the differential stress lasts That is when you take away the differential stress any elastic strain disappears and the rock or other elastic material goes back to its original shape Similarly if you add a little stress the strain increases a little if you take away a little stress the strain decreases a little and the rock gets closer to its original shape For example if you stretch a rubber band you are applying stress to it and it reacts by straining becoming longer and thinner If you increase the stress it stretches more if you decrease the stress it shrinks back a little brittle strain A permanent strain that remains even after all stresses are removed Brittle strain involves breaking and cracking Fine china easily undergoes brittle strain ductile strain A permanent strain that remains even after all stresses are removed Ductile strain involves any type of distortion morphing or bending Clay easily undergoes ductile strain elastic potential energy A form of potential energy that is stored in rocks or any other elastic



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