Topic Introduction
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Topic Introduction
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Lecture Notes
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 2
 School:
 Massachusetts Institute of Technology
 Course:
 8 02  Physics II: Electricity and Magnetism
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Summary of Class 20 8 02 Topics Faraday s Law Related Reading Course Notes Liao et al Chapter 10 Topic Introduction So far in this class magnetic fields and electric fields have been fairly well isolated Electric fields are generated by static charges magnetic fields by moving charges currents In each of these cases the fields have been static we have had constant charges or currents making constant electric or magnetic fields Today we make two major changes to what we have seen before we consider the interaction of these two types of fields and we consider what happens when they are not static We will discuss the final Maxwell s equation Faraday s law which explains that electric fields can be generated not only by charges but also by magnetic fields that vary in time Faraday s Law It is not entirely surprising that electricity and magnetism are connected We have seen after all that if an electric field is used to accelerate charges make a current that a magnetic field can result Faraday s law however is something completely new We can now forget about charges completely What Faraday discovered is that a changing magnetic flux generates an EMF electromotive force Mathematically G G G G B where B B d A is the magnetic flux and v E d s is the EMF d dt G In the formula above E is the electric field measured in the rest frame of the circuit if the circuit is moving The above formula is deceptively simple so I will discuss several important points to consider when thinking about Faraday s law WARNING First a warning Many students confuse Faraday s Law with Ampere s Law Both involve integrating around a loop and comparing that to an integral across the area bounded by that loop Aside from this mathematical similarity however the two laws are completely different In Ampere s law the field that is curling around the loop is the G G magnetic field created by a current flux I J d A that is penetrating the looping B field In Faraday s law the electric field is curling created
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