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Definitions Alternatively fixed alleles Dominant vs co dominant markers Genotype Alternatively fixed alleles Two flower species species 1 and species 2 can have one of two features Long L or short s leaves Red R or white w flowers Ten individuals from species 1 have the following traits LR LR LR LR LR LR LR sR sR sR Ten individuals from species 2 have the following traits sw sw sw sw sw sw sw Lw Lw Lw Which one is the alternatively fixed allele Both alleles will differentiate the groups frequencies are significantly different Only one will be diagnostic because alternatively fixed It is the color of the flower all flowers in species 1 are R all flowers in species 2 are w all implies your sampling size is adequate Dominant vs co dominant markers Flowers are red or white or yellow DNA sequence is agg agt agc DNA fragment is 10 12 0r 14 bp long CO DOMINANT we know what alternative alleles are Flowers are red or non red DNA is agg or not size is 10bp or not We only see the dominant allele and we express it in binary code 1 present 0 absent Limitations of co dominant markers Not all non red flowers are the same but we assume they are non red flowers can be orange or yellow If at one locus we have a dominant A allele and a recessive a allele using a codominant marker we would say AA Aa but not aa We know in reality AA and Aa are quite different Genotype A unique individual as defined by an array of genetic markers the more markers you have the less mistaken identity you will have blonde Blonde Blue eyed Blonde Blue eyed Hairy Blonde Blue eyed Hairy 6 feet tall Blonde Blue eyed Hairy 6 feet tall Missing two molars In the case of microbes it will probably be something like Genotype A 01010101 Genotype B 00110101 Genotype C 00010101 Summary of third lesson DNA polymorphisms can be diagnostic Mutations Sex Barriers to mating Plant Diseases can be biotic interaction between host and causal agent or abiotic Many organisms can cause plant diseases but fungi are the No 1 cause

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